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Replication. Cell Division. DNA/RNA/Protein Synthesis. All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com. DNA Scientists. Who tried to find the genetic material but f ailed ? Instead he found TRANS F ORMATION .

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Replication

Cell Division

DNA/RNA/Protein Synthesis

All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com

who tried to find the genetic material but f ailed instead he found trans f ormation

Who tried to find the genetic material but failed? Instead he found TRANSFORMATION.

This scientist injected mice with heat killed disease bacteria and live good bacteria and the mice died of pneumonia.

gri ff ith f for f ailing to find genetic material f for f inding

TRANSFORMATION

Griffith“F” for failing to find genetic material!F for finding:

He found that good bacteria are changed into bad bacteria with transfer of some “factor.”

slide6

Avery

Remember: Avery got an “A” for finding DNA; the factor that causes transformation

slide7

Who used X-rays to determine what DNA really looked like?Hint: This scientist died from too much radiation 

rosalind franklin

Rosalind Franklin

You may see this picture on the SOL!

slide11

Capsid (protein coat of virus)

Who used radioactive bacteriophages (viruses) to confirm the genetic material being transferred was DNA?

Bacteriophage

(Virus)

Bacteria Cell

hershey chase bacteriophages chase after bacteria to inject their dna for infection and replication

Hershey & ChaseBacteriophages chase after bacteria to inject their DNA for infection and replication.

DNA

Real Picture of a Bacteriophage

slide13

Who found:

% of Adenine = % Thymine

% Cytosine = % Guanine

What is this rule called?

slide14

CHARGAFF

Chargoff’s Rule of BASE PAIRING!

slide15

A, T, C, G

Which ones are purines?

Which are pyrimidines?

slide16

A, T, C, G

Hint: You “Pee Urine” (purine) in an outhouse attached to the main house

House

Hint: Cystine and Thymine have “y” in their names like Pyrimidine

Out-house

slide22

What is the shape of the DNA molecule called?

DOUBLE HELIX

2 sides like a ladder

slide28

What is the difference between the DNA in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?

DNA in a Prokaryote is a long loop found in the cytoplasm

DNA in a Eukaryote are individual chromosomes in the nucleus

slide36

List the steps of DNA replication:

Enzyme (Helicase) unzips DNA to open up

DNA Polymerase (enzyme) attaches to the DNA and adds complimentary bases (A,T,C,G) to make new sides of DNA

Two identical strands of DNA are created for cell division (S phase)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdDkiRw1PdU&list=PL11819901C1D3513D

Hyperlink to video if access to internet

slide37

An original strand of DNA has these nitrogen basesC G G T A T G A T1. What are the complimentary bases for the new DNA strand after replication?2. What bond holds the nitrogen bases together to form the “steps of the ladder”?

slide38

C G G T A T G A T original strand

l l l l l l l l l

G C C A T A C T A new strand

Hydrogen Bonds

list 3 similarities and 3 differences
List 3 Similarities and 3 Differences

DNA

RNA

Similarities

Both are Nucleic Acids

Sugar Phosphate Backbones

A, C, G Nitrogen Bases

Differences

Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar

Thymine Uracil

Double Helix Single Strand

list similarities and differences
List Similarities and Differences

DNA

RNA

Similarities

Both are Nucleic Acids

Sugar - Phosphate Backbones

A, C, G nitrogen Bases

Differences

Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar

Thymine base Uracil base

Double Helix Single Strand

slide43

Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab

Why did we use…

Soap?

Salt?

Meat tenderizer?

Cold alcohol?

slide44

Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab

Why did we use…

Soap? Breaks down lipid cell and nuclear membranes

Salt? Neutralizes + and - charges

Meat tenderizer? Breaks down the protein (Histones) wrapped around DNA

Cold alcohol? Precipitates out DNA

slide45

RNA

Hint:

RNA loves

“U”

slide48

mRNA- messenger RNA - brings genetic code for proteins out of DNA to ribosome (like a recipe)tRNA – transfer RNA - brings amino acids to ribosomes (like a sous chef bringing ingredients to chef)rRNA – ribosomal RNA- (ribosome) makes the protein (like the chef)

t

slide56

What is the whole process of making proteins that includes transcription & translation called?

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztPkv7wc3yU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6O6uRb1D38

Transcription Translation

Click on Hyperlink to video if access to internet is available

slide57

List the steps to make mRNA

What is this process called?

slide58

List the steps to make mRNA

“TRANSCRIPTION”

In the nucleus, DNA unzips

RNA Polymerase binds to DNA at promoter region

RNA Polymerase reads DNA’s nitrogen bases and makes and edits mRNA

mRNA goes out of nucleusthrough pores

slide59

When RNA Polymerase is editing the mRNA during transcription,

  • What is kept in the mRNA?
  • What is edited (cut) out?
slide61

List the steps to make Protein from mRNA

What is this process called?

slide62

List the steps to make protein

“TRANSLATION” (comes LATer)

In the cytoplasm, rRNA attaches to mRNA

rRNA reads mRNA beginning at the AUG “START codon”

Each tRNA brings 1 amino acid to ribosome that has an anti-codon to mRNA codon until it reads a “STOP” codon

Amino acids join to form polypeptide chain =

PROTEIN

Polypeptide Chain =

PROTEIN

Amino Acid

tRNA

mRNA

rRNA

ribosome

slide67

How many amino acids are there?

How many different codons code for those amino acids?

slide68

How many amino acids are there? 20

How many different codons code for those amino acids? 64

Remember:

Each tRNA only brings

1 amino acid to the ribosome

1 codon = 1 amino acid

3 nitrogen bases = 1 codon

slide69

Can you Translatethis mRNA ?

A U G U G C G U C U A A

what is a gene mutation

What is a gene mutation?

Not a real picture

slide74

What kind of DNA mutations are these?

GENE MUTATIONS

Name each type

Substitution (Point Mutation)

Insertion (Frame shift)

Deletion (Frame shift)

Substitution Point Mutation

Insertion

Frame shift Mutation

Deletion

Frame shift Mutation

name all types of chromosomal mutations

Name all types of chromosomal mutations

which one of these is not a gene mutation substitution deletion insertion inversion

Which one of these is not a gene mutation?Substitution?Deletion ?Insertion?Inversion?

Gene mutation in mice

slide78

Substitution = Point Mutation (gene)Deletion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)Insertion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)

Inversion = Chromosomal Mutation

I bet he can catch 3x more flies!

slide80

Hox Genes

Not a real picture!