Research Question What is the influence of mirrored exercise rooms on participants’ levels of social physique anxiety and physical self-worth ? Abstract The American College of Sports Medicine (1997) suggests that all exercise classrooms should have mirrors to aid exercisers in improving their form and coordination, yet research indicates that mirrors can also produce negative psychological consequences. Mirrored exercise spaces can enhance social comparison, which then leads to either positive or negative self-evaluations (Lamarch, Gammage, & Strong, 2009). Katula, McAuley, Mihalko, and Bane (1998) found that when women exercised in a mirrored environment, they had lower self-efficacy than males. However, Katula and McAuley (2001) later found self-efficacy was increased when highly active women exercised in a mirrored environment. According to Leary and Kowalski (1995), individuals considering exercising in contexts where physical self is important (i.e. a gym or an exercise class) expect that their body will be evaluated by others. Additionally, individuals with high levels of social physique anxiety will be concerned that their physique will be perceived as unfavorable or negative in the eyes of others. Due to the struggle to appear attractive, individuals may avoid physical activity, resulting in the fact that those who have the greatest need for aerobic exercise may be the most reluctant to engage in it(Marquez & McAuley, 2001). As such, the recommended practice of placing mirrors in exercise centers may need to be reconsidered, especially in facilities that are trying to attract exercise initiates (Martin Ginis & Jung, 2003). Consequently, the purpose of this study is to examine the influence of mirrored exercise environments on an individual’s levels of social physique anxiety and physical self-worth. The results may inform exercise leaders and physical educators as to the influence of mirrors on their students’ psychological well-being. The effects of mirrored Exercise rooms on the self-concepts ofcollege students: A proposal of researchAmy E. Schneiderand Rebecca Y. Concepcion, Ph.D.Department of Exercise Science | Pacific University | 2043 College Way | Forest, OR 97116 • Hypothesis • When exercising in a mirrored environment… • Participants with greater levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-worth upon initial assessment will experience even poorer scores in these areas after exercising in a mirrored environment. • Participants with low levels of social physique anxiety and higher levels of physical self-worth upon initial assessment will have no difference in social physique anxiety and physical self-worth when exercising in a mirrored exercise space. • Participants who regularly exercise in mirrored environments will be less effected by the mirrored condition regardless of their self-concept levels. • Methods • ParticipantsUndergraduate students who are at least 18 years of age and physically healthy. • Instruments • PAR-Q (Thomas, Reading, & Shephard, 1992) to screen participants for physical ability to exercise. • The Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP; Fox & Corbin, 1989) examines five aspects of physical self-worth. • The Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) measures participants’ perceptions and feelings about their physique/figure. • The Godin Leisure–Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ; Godin & Shephard, 1997) quantifies exercise over one week. • Demographics Gender, age, weight, height, major, team or individual sport involvement, use/non-use of mirrors during exercise, and Jazzercise familiarity. • ProceduresParticipants will complete the LTEQ, PSPP, and SPAS after signing the informed consent. They will then participate in two 30-minute Jazzercise classes within both mirrored & non-mirrored environments. Afterward, they will complete the PSPP and SPAS again. Courtesy of: www.seb.org/class/53662-jazzercise Analysis T-tests will be used to examine differences within subjects and across groups. References American College of Sports Medicine. (1997). ACSM’s Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines(2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Fox, K. R., & Corbin, C. B. (1989). The Physical Self-Perception Profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 408-430. Godin, G., & Shephard, R. J. (1997) Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 29 June Supplement: S36-S38. Hart, E. A., Leary, M. R., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). The measurement of social physique anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 94-104. Katula, J. A, & McAuley, E. (2001). The mirror does not lie: Acute exercise and self-efficacy. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 319-326. Katula, J. A., McAuley, E., Mihalko, S. L., & Bane, S. M. (1998). Mirror, mirror on the wall…Exercise environment influences on self-efficacy. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 13, 319-332. Lamarch, L., Gammage, K. L., & Strong, H. A. (2009). The effects of mirrored environments on self-presentational efficacy and social anxiety in women in a step aerobics class. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 67-71. Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1995). Social Anxiety. New York: Guilford Press. Marquez, D. X., & McAuley, E. (2001). Physique anxiety and self-efficacy influences perceptions of physical evaluation. Social Behavior and Personality, 29, 649-660. Martin Ginis, K. A., & Jung, M. E. (2003). To see or not to see: Effects of exercising in mirrored environments on sedentary women’s feeling states and self-efficacy. Health Psychology, 22, 354-361. Thomas, S., Reading, J., Shephard, R. J. (1992). Revision of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Sport Science, 17, 338-345. Acknowledgements This study will be funded by a Pacific University Undergraduate Research Grant.