BA4135 LEADERSHIP THEORY & APPLICATION Professor: Pinar Acar
Course Rules • Professionalism & Courtesy Score • 5% of letter grade • Attend every class • Come and leave on time • Professional and mature behavior in class • No cell phones
Assignments • One project • Groups of 2 or individually • Letter grades will be adjusted according to peer evaluations • One simulation • individual
In-class Exercises & Cases • Do advance reading of textbook material • Read the assigned cases and prepare the discussion questions • Be prepared to make informal presentations to class • Use relevant concepts and theories
Other Policies • No make-up exam • Denying credit to students that fall short of acceptable performance level • Plagiarism • Information sheets - Mar4 • Peer evaluation – last week
Agenda • Defining leadership • Identify why leadership is important • Discuss leadership effectiveness • Discuss if leaders are born or made • Discuss managerial roles • Identify major approaches to leadership
Why is leadership important? Do leaders make a difference? Is leadership only about CEOs of large companies? Are leaders born or made?
Defining Leadership • Leadership is the influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve shared objectives • Leaders – Follower • Context: Formal organizations • Influencing: The process of communicating ideas, gaining acceptance of them, and motivating others to support and implement them.
Leadership Effectiveness • Performance and goal achievement • Follower attitudes • Smooth internal processes • External adaptability
Approaches to Leadership • Trait approach • Behavior approach • Power-Influence approach • Situational approach • Integrative approach
Chapter 3 The Nature of Managerial Work
Agenda • Understand the typical activity patterns for people in managerial positions • Understand the different roles required for managers • Understand how managers cope with the demands, constraints, and choices confronting them • Understand how managers can make effective use of their time
Typical Activity Patterns in Managerial Work • Pace of work is hectic and unrelenting • Content of work is varied and fragmented • Many activities are reactive • Interactions often involve peers and outsiders
Typical Activity Patterns in Managerial Work (Cont.) • Many interactions involve oral communication • Decision processes are disorderly and political • Most planning is informal and adaptive
The Content of Managerial Work • Job description research • Supervising • Planning and organizing • Decision making • Monitoring indicators • Controlling • Representing • Coordinating • Consulting • Administering
Managerial Roles • Described by Mintzberg. • A role is a set of specific tasks a person performs because of the position they hold. • There are 3 broad role categories: 1. Interpersonal 2. Informational 3. Decisional
Interpersonal Roles Roles managers assume to coordinate and interact with employees and provide direction to the organization. • Figurehead role:symbolizes the organization and what it is trying to achieve. • Leader role:train, counsel, mentor and encourage high employee performance. • Liaison role:link and coordinate people inside and outside the organization to help achieve goals.
Informational Roles Associated with the tasks needed to obtain and transmit information for management of the organization. • Monitor role:analyzes information from both the internal and external environment. • Disseminator role:manager transmits information to influence attitudes and behavior of employees. • Spokesperson role:use of information to positively influence the way people in and out of the organization respond to it.
Decisional Roles Associated with the methods managers use to plan strategy and utilize resources to achieve goals. • Entrepreneur role:deciding upon new projects or programs to initiate and invest. • Disturbance handler role:assume responsibility for handling an unexpected event or crisis. • Resource allocator role: assign resources between functions and divisions, set budgets of lower managers. • Negotiator role:seeks to negotiate solutions between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders.
Role Conflicts • Role senders • Role expectations • Conflicting demands • Perceptions of role requirements
Unique Role RequirementsStewart (1967, 1976, 1982) • Demands – required duties, activities, and responsibilities • Constraints – limiting characteristics of the organization and external environment • Choices – activities that a manager may do but is not required to do
Unique Role RequirementsSituational Determinants • Pattern of relationships • Work patterns • Exposure
Research on Situational Determinants • Level of management • Size of organizational unit • Lateral interdependence • Crisis situation • Stage in the organizational life cycle
Changes in the Nature of Managerial Work • Economics, politics, and society • Globalization • New computer and telecommunications technology • Structure of organizations • Outsourcing and just-in-time inventories
Time Management Applications for Managers
Importance of objectives & priorities Daily Tasks Intermediate Goals Long-Range Goals Personal Governing Values Productivity Pyramid
Time Mgt. Matrix Importance (driven by values and goals) Not Imp But Urgent Imp & Urgent Urgency Imp But Not Urgent Neither Imp Nor Urgent
Beating the time wasters • Make a list of all the things you will do tomorrow. • Prioritize each item in terms of A, B, and C. • Take time to reclassify • Make a list of all the time wasters that interfere with your ability to accomplish your long-term objectives.
Sources of Problems in Time Mgt. Some normal human tendencies • Prefer to do things that are interesting and pleasant • Prefer to do things that are easy • Tend to do things that are urgent • Wait until just before a deadline • Not aware of how time is used • Equate activity with achievement
Sources of Problems in Time Mgt. Some basic paradoxes: • Busy people can’t find time to plan • People who mostly respond to crisis insure they will recur • People who can’t delegate to inexperienced subordinates are unlikely to develop them • People who find time to do things for others are likely to be asked to do even more things • People who tend to leave things on their desk create clutter
Common Time Wasters for Mgrs. • Drop-in Visitors • Telephone interruptions • Cluttered office • Unessential tasks • Unnecessary or over-long meetings • Causes • Possible remedies • Barriers • Screening mechanisms • Scheduling mechanisms • Clarifying role expectations
Other Causes • Plan daily activities • Make a to-do list and assign priorities • Procrastination • Perfectionism • Analyzing activity patterns
Managing Stress • Stress causes a variety of ilnesses. • Work-related effects. • Stress is within the person. • Perceptual and subjective • A certain amount of stress is inevitable.
Sources of Stress • Individual differences • Type A behavior pattern • Stressful life situations • Work-related stressors • Work overload • Time pressures • Role conflict • Office politics
Strategies • Remove yourself • Alter the situation • Teach yourself to respond differently • Clarify your values • Stress vaccine • Create a personal support system • Maintain good physical health • Take energy breaks • Perform relaxation techniques
Proven Stress Reducers • Get up 15 min earlier • Prepare for the morning the evening before • Do nothing which leads you to tell a lie • Manage your time effectively • Breathe right • Make contingency plans • Say no. • Delegate responsibility • Do one thing at a time
Chapter 7 Managerial Traits and Skills
Terminology • Personality: The pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. • Trait: A specific component of personality that describes particular tendencies a person has to feel, think, and act in certain ways. • Values: Convictions that a specific course of action or outcome is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse course of action or outcome. • Needs: Physiological or psychological deficiencies that people feel some compulsion to eliminate. • Skill: An ability to do something effectively
6 The Big Five Model of Personality • Surgency: The tendency to experience positive emotional states and feel good about oneself and the world around. • Neuroticism: The tendency to experience negative emotional states and view oneself and the world around negatively. • Agreeableness: The tendency to get along well with others. • Conscientiousness: The extent to which a person is careful, scrupulous, and persevering. • Openness to Experience: The extent to which a person is original, has broad interests, and is willing to take risks.
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Why executives are derailed? • Used a bullying style viewed as intimidating, insensitive, and abrasive • Viewed as being cold, aloof, and arrogant • Low emotional stability • Were self-centeredand viewed as overly ambitious and thinking of the next job • Betrayed personal trust (low integrity) • Defensive – resistant to change • Had specific performance problems with the business • Overmanaged and were unable to delegate or build a team
Traits of Effective Leaders • Dominance • High energy • Self-confidence • Integrity • Flexibility • Self-Confidence • Emotional Stability • Sensitivity to others • Intelligence • Internal locus of control
Need for Achievement • Doing better than competitors • Attaining or surpassing a difficult goal • Solving a complex problem • Carrying out a challenging assignment successfully • Developing a better way to do something
Need for Power • Influencing people to change their attitudes or behavior • Controlling people and activities • Being in a position of authority over others • Gaining control over information and resources • Defeating an opponent or enemy
Need for Affiliation • Being liked by many people • Being accepted as part of a group or team • Working with people who are friendly and cooperative • Maintaining harmonious relationship and avoiding conflicts • Participating in pleasant social activities
Leader Motive Profile Theory • Attempts to explain and predict leadership success based on a person’s nAch, nPow. and nAff. LMP: a high need for power which is socialized, a moderate need for achievement and a lower need for affiliation. • Power – socialized power • Achievement • Affiliation
Agenda • Research on effective leadership behavior • Yukl’s taxonomy of leadership behaviors • Consolidated products case • Air Force Supply Squadron • Identifying managerial practices • Giving and receiving instructions • Giving praise