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Reliability Motivation - 35 Years Ago. Section 2: RELIABILITY AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS. 2.2 R&QA REQUIREMENTS FOR PHASED HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT 2.2.2 STUDY/DEFINITION PHASE REQUIREMENTS b. Development of preliminary mathematical model and reliability predictions. (NPC 250-1)

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reliability motivation 35 years ago
ReliabilityMotivation - 35 Years Ago

Section 2: RELIABILITY AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS

  • 2.2 R&QA REQUIREMENTS FOR PHASED HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT
  • 2.2.2 STUDY/DEFINITION PHASE REQUIREMENTS
    • b. Development of preliminary mathematical model and reliability predictions. (NPC 250-1)
    • c. Establishment of reliability and safety goals and other R&QA requirements in preliminary specifications. (NMI 5320.1, NMI 5330.1, NPC 500-1).
  • 2.2.3 DESIGN PHASE REQUIREMENTS
    • e. Development of mathematical models and reliability predictions. (NPC 250-1, RA006-007-1)
    • g. Apportionment of reliability goals to equipments and components. (NPC 250-1)

Office of Manned Space Flight - Apollo Program. NHB 5300.1A, July 1966

Apollo Reliability and Quality Assurance Program Plan

reliability 35 years ago

LEVEL RELIABILITY ANALYSIS AND MODELING ACTIVITY HARDWARE

I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Missions

Mission/Launch

Vehicle/Spacecraft/

Ground Support

Systems/Stage/

Module/Subsystem

Apollo

Mission

Reliability

Estimates

Apollo Program Office - R&QA

Model Integration

Launch Vehicle/

Spacecraft/Ground

Support Systems/

Stage/Module/

Subsystem/

Black Box

Center Estimates

SC

LV

LC

GOSS

Apollo Program Office - R&QA Review

Stage/Module/

Subsystem/

Black Box/

Component

Contractor Reliability Estimates

Center Review

Subsystem/

Black Box/

Component/Part

Subcontractor and Design Group Estimates

Contractor Review

Reliability - 35 Years Ago

Office of Manned Space Flight - Apollo Program. NHB 5300.1A, July 1966

Apollo Reliability and Quality Assurance Program Plan

reliability1
Reliability
  • Introduction to Reliability
  • Historical Perspective
  • Current Devices
  • Trends
the bathtub curve

Failure

rate, 

Infant

Mortality

Useful life

Wear out

 Constant

Time

The Bathtub Curve
the bathtub curve 2
The Bathtub Curve (2)

What is the "bathtub" curve?

In the 1950’s, a group known as AGREE (Advisory Group for the Reliability of Electronic Equipment) discovered that the failure rate of electronic equipment had a pattern similar to the death rate of people in a closed system. Specifically, they noted that the failure rate of electronic components and systems follow the classical “bathtub” curve. This curve has three distinctive phases:

1. An “infant mortality” early life phase characterized by a decreasing failure rate (Phase 1). Failure occurrence during this period is not random in time but rather the result of substandard components with gross defects and the lack of adequate controls in the manufacturing process. Parts fail at a high but decreasing rate.

2. A “useful life” period where electronics have a relatively constant failure rate caused by randomly occurring defects and stresses (Phase 2). This corresponds to a normal wear and tear period where failures are caused by unexpected and sudden over stress conditions. Most reliability analyses pertaining to electronic systems are concerned with lowering the failure frequency (i.e., const shown in the Figure) during this period.

3. A “wear out” period where the failure rate increases due to critical parts wearing out (Phase 3). As they wear out, it takes less stress to cause failure and the overall system failure rate increases, accordingly failures do not occur randomly in time.

introduction to reliability
Introduction to Reliability
  • Failure in time (FIT)

Failures per 109 hours

( ~ 104 hours/year )

  • Acceleration Factors
    • Temperature
    • Voltage
introduction to reliability cont d

EA/kT

ttf = C • e

Introduction to Reliability (cont'd)

Most failure mechanisms can be modeled using the Arrhenius equation.

ttf - time to failure (hours)

C - constant (hours)

EA - activation energy (eV)

k - Boltzman's constant (8.616 x 10-5eV/°K)

T - temperature (ºK)

introduction to reliability cont d acceleration factors
Introduction to Reliability (cont'd)Acceleration Factors

ttfL

A.F. = ------

ttfH

A.F. = acceleration factor

ttfL = time to failure, system junction temp (hours)

ttfH = time to failure, test junction temp (hours)

introduction to reliability cont d activation energies
Introduction to Reliability (cont'd)Activation Energies

Failure Mechanism EA(eV)

Oxide/dielectric defects 0.3

Chemical, galvanic, or electrolytic corrosion 0.3

Silicon defects 0.3

Electromigration 0.5 to 0.7

Unknown 0.7

Broken bonds 0.7

Lifted die 0.7

Surface related contamination induced shifts 1.0

Lifted bonds (Au-A1 interface) 1.0

Charge injection 1.3

Note: Different sources have different values - these values just given for examples.

acceleration factor voltage oxides and dielectrics

0.07/kT

 = 0.4 • e

Acceleration Factor - VoltageOxides and Dielectrics
  • Large acceleration factors from increase in electric field strength

A.F. = 10 •  / (MV / cm)

k - Boltzman's constant (8.616 x 10-5eV/°K)

T - temperature (ºK)

acceleration factor voltage
Acceleration Factor: Voltage

Median-time-to-fail of unprogrammed antifuse vs. 1/V for different failure criteria with positive stress voltage on top electrode and Ta = 25 °C.

integrated circuit reliability historical perspective
Integrated Circuit ReliabilityHistorical Perspective

Application Reliability

  • Apollo Guidance Computer < 10 FITs
  • Commercial (1971) 500 Hours
  • Military (1971) 2,000 Hours
  • High Reliability (1971) 10,000 Hours
  • SSI/MSI/PROM 38510 (1976) 44-344 FITs
  • MSI/LSI CICD Hi-Rel (1987) 43 FITs
device and computer reliability 1960 s hi rel application
Device and Computer Reliability1960's Hi-Rel Application
  • Apollo Guidance Computer
    • Failure rate of IC gates:

< 0.001% / 1,000 hours ( < 10 FITS )

    • Field Mean-Time-To-Failure

~ 13,000 hours

  • One gate type used with large effort on screening, failure analysis, and implementation.
device reliability 1971
Device Reliability:1971

Reliability Level of Representative

Parts and Practices MTBF (hr)

Commercial 500

Military 2,000

High Reliability 10,000 (104 hours)

mil m 38510 devices 1976
MIL-M-38510 Devices (1976)

Circuit Types Description FITS

5400 Quad, 2-input NAND 60

5482 2-bit, full adder 44

5483 4-bit, full adder 112

5474 Dual, D, edge-triggered flip-flop 72

54S174 Hex, D, edge-triggered flip-flop 152

54163 4-bit synchronous counter 120

4049A Inverting hex buffer 52

4013A Dual, D, edge-triggered flip-flop 104

4020A 14-stage, ripple carry counter 344

10502 Triple NOR (ECL) 80

HYPROM512 512-bit PROM 280

harris cicd devices 1987
Harris CICD Devices (1987)
  • Circuit Types
    • HS-6504 - 4k X 1 RAM HS-8155/56 - 256 x 8 RAM
    • HS-6514 - 1k x 4 RAM HS-82C08RH - Bus Transceiver
    • HS-3374RH - Level Converter HS-82C12RH - I/O Port
    • HS-54C138RH - Decoder HS-8355RH - 2k x 8 ROM
    • HS-80C85RH - 8-bit CPU
  • Package Types
    • Flat Packs (hermetic brazed and glass/ceramic seals)
    • LCC
    • DIP
  • FITS @ 55°C, Failure Rate @ 60% U.C.L.
    • 43.0
actel fpgas
Actel FPGAs

Technology FITS # Failures Device-Hours

(m)

2.0/1.2 33 2 9.4 x 107

1.0 9.0 6 6.1 x 108

0.8 10.9 1 1.9 x 108

0.6 4.9 0 1.9 x 108

0.45 12.6 0 7.3 x 107

0.35 19.3 0 4.8 x 107

RTSX 0.6 33.7 0 2.7 x 107

0.25 88.9 0 1.0 x 107

0.22 78.6 0 1.2 x 107

xilinx fpgas
Xilinx FPGAs
  • XC40xxXL
    • Static: 9 FIT, 60% UCL
    • Dynamic: 29 FIT, 60% UCL
  • XCVxxx
    • Static: 34 FIT, 60% UCL
    • Dynamic: 443 FIT, 60% UCL
utmc and quicklogic
UTMC and Quicklogic
  • FPGA
    • < 10 FITS (planned)
    • Quicklogic reports 12 FIT, 60% UCL
  • UT22VP10

UTER Technology, 0 failures, 0.3

  • Antifuse PROM
    • 64K: 19 FIT, 60% UCL
    • 256K: 76 FIT, 60% UCL
ramtron frams
RAMTRON FRAMs

Technology FITS # Failures # Devices Hours Device-Hours

1608 (64K) 1281 1 100 103 105

4k & 16K

Serial 37 152 4257 103 4.3 x 106

Note: Applied stress, HTOL, 125ºC, Dynamic, VCC=5.5V.

1 The one failure occurred in less then 48 hours. The manufacturer feels that this was an infant mortality failure.

2 12 failures detected at 168 hours, 3 failures at 500 hours, and no failures detected after that point.

skylab lessons learned
Skylab Lessons Learned

58. Lesson: New Electronic Components

Avoid the use of new electronic techniques and components in critical subsystems unless their use is absolutely mandatory.

Background:

New electronic components (resistors, diodes, transistors, switches, etc.) are developed each year. Most push the state-of-the-art and contain new fabrication processes. Designers of systems are eager to use them since they each have advantages over more conventional components. However, being new, they are untried and generally have unknown characteristics and idiosynchracies. Let some other program discover the problems. Do not use components which have not been previously used in a similar application if it can be avoided, even at the expense of size and weight.