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5 Animal Nutrients. The Body Owner’s Handbook by Nick Arnold. Topic Outline. 1.  Biochemistry a. Macromolecules 2.  Carbohydrates a. Definition b. Classification c. Formation of glycosidic bond d. Test for reducing, non-reducing sugars and starch

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topic outline
Topic Outline

1.  Biochemistry

a. Macromolecules

2.  Carbohydrates

a. Definition

b. Classification

c. Formation of glycosidic bond

d. Test for reducing, non-reducing sugars and starch

e. Principle source and dietary importance of carbohydrates and fibre

3.  Proteins

4.  Fats

5.  Role of the liver in the metabolism of glucose and amino acids

6.  Vitamins C and D

7.  Minerals (calcium and iron)

8.  Balanced diet

9. World food supply problems

internet sites
Internet sites

1)http://www.biologylessons.sdsu.edu/classes/lab6/lab6.html - general overview of chemicals of life

2)http://web.mit.edu/esgbio/www/lm/lmdir.html - structure and function of chemicals of life

3)http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/meat/safe/foodborne.html - Food-borne diseases

slide6

THE NEED FOR FOOD

1. For growth

- synthesis of new protoplasm, cells and tissues

2. For repair or replacement of worn and damaged tissues

- replace red blood cells, skin

- repair wounds

3. As a source of energy

-Energy store in food is called potential chemical energy

- Released and used for:

chemical reactions that build complex molecules

activities, eg movement (kinetic energy), heartbeat

maintenance of body temperature (mammals, birds)

4. To maintain health and prevent deficiency diseases

slide7

Taking in useful substances = feeding or nutrition

A FOOD CHAIN

Nasty Nature by Nick Arnold

slide8

THE WAY PLANTS FEED:

Simple inorganic substances (CO2, H2O, minerals)

taken in by plants

Built up to complex organic materials (sugars)

AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION = plants can make their own food via photosynthesis

THE WAY ANIMALS FEED:

They feed on organic substances originally made by plants.

This is called HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION

slide9

CONDENSATION –process whereby simpler substances built up to form a more complex substance by the removal of a water molecule.

slide10

HYDROLYSIS – process whereby complex substance is broken down into simpler substances by the addition of a water molecule.

slide11

COMPONENTS OF FOOD

3 main components: nutrients, fibre, water

NUTRIENTS: chemical substances in food that nourish the body, i.e. provide energy and materials required

5 groups of nutrients:

- Carbohydrates, fats, proteins

required in large quantities

supply energy and materials to make new protoplasm

- Minerals, vitamins

required in smaller quantities

maintain normal metabolism, no energy value

macromolecules
Macromolecules

§Giant molecules made from many repeating units

§Polymers made up of basic units called monomers

Four types of macromolecules/ polymers:

1)Polysaccharides - made up of monosaccharides

2)Fats - made up of fatty acids and glycerol

3)Proteins - made up of amino acids

4) Nucleic acids - made up of nucleotides

2 carbohydrates
2. Carbohydrates

http://opbs.okstate.edu/~Blair/Bioch2344/Chapter10/Chapter10.htm#Anchor-D-Fructose

a.Definition

- Substances that contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

- General formulae: CnH2nOn

- The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1

- Carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides.

slide15
b. Classification
  • Carbohydrates are classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
  • Greek monos means single and sacchar means sugars
  • Common simple sugars have six carbon atoms
  • glucose - found in all animals
  • fructose - found in plants but uncommon in animals
  • galactose - formed when milk sugar is digested
disaccharides
Disaccharides

§ Complex sugars

§Made up of two molecules of simple sugars (monsaccharides)

§Formed by condensation reaction and involved the loss of a single water molecule

§Resultant bond formed between the two simple sugars is called glycosidic bond

§Hydrolysis is the reverse of condensation where water is added to break a disaccharide into its constituent monosaccharides.

slide19
Sucrose- made up of glucose and fructose
  • Found in cane sugar, sugar beet and carrots
slide20
Maltose - made up of two molecules of glucose
  • Found in malted cereals, barley grains, and sprouted grains
  • Formed in the partial digestion of starch
polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Macromolecule; polymers made up of several hundred to several thousand monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds.
  • Process of joining the monosaccharides is called polymerisation
  • Two classes of polysaccharides:
  • Storage polysaccharides (starch and glycogen) - when hydrolysed/ broken down, supply sugars to cells for energy production
  • Structuralpolysaccharides (cellulose) - building materials for structures that protect cells or even whole organisms.
starch
Starch

§Made up of up to 200 glucose molecules condensed together

§Found in cereals, potato, tapioca

§Not formed and stored in animals but in plants

§When starch is hydrolysed by amylase, maltose is formed. Maltose is hydrolysed by maltase to form glucose.

glycogen
Glycogen

§Made up of glucose molecules condensed together and are highly branched

§Storage form of carbohydrate in animals, stored in liver and muscle cells of mammals

  • When glucose is needed, glycogen is converted to glucose by hormones (glucagons)
slide28

unbranched

branched

extensively branched

Biology by Campbell, Reece & Mitchell

slide29

Starch and glycogen are ideal storage materials:

- They are insoluble in water, so does not change the osmotic pressure in the cell.

- They are large molecules, so cannot diffuse through cell membrane.

- They can be hydrolysed to glucose.

- They have compact shapes, so occupy less space.

cellulose
Cellulose

§Made up of glucose molecules condensed together

§Main component of plant cell wall to prevent the bursting of plant cells and keep the cells turgid

§Inert and few animals can digest itUsed to make cotton goods and a constituent of paper.

slide33

STRUCTURAL FUNCTION

Parallel arrangement of unbranched cellulose molecules

Biology by Campbell, Reece & Mitchell

slide34

Since both starch and cellulose are made of glucose units joined together, why then only starch can be digested in our bodies but not cellulose?

CELLULOSE

STARCH

Biology: Principles and Processes by Roberts, Reiss & Monger

c formation of glycosidic bond
c.Formation of glycosidic bond
  • A condensation reaction which involved the loss of a water molecule
slide36

Condensation (water lost)

Glucose + Fructose

Sucrose

Hydrolysis (water added)

test for reducing sugars
Test for reducing sugars

Name of test: Benedict’s solution Test

Benedict’s solution = copper (II) sulphate

in an alkaline solution

(blue)

Method:

1.Add 2cm3 of reducing sugar into a test

tube.

2.Add an equal volume of Benedict’s solution.

3. Shake and boil in a boiling water bath for

2 - 3 minutes.

slide39

Test for reducing sugars

Precautions to take when comparing samples

1) Same volume of Benedict's reagent

2) Same duration of heating time (3 mins) and

3) Same volume of sample used.

4) Place tubes into water bath only after the water in water bath

has boiled

NB:Water level in water bath must always be above the solutions in the test tubes

slide40
Results:

A brick-red precipitate will be formed.

Soluble blue copper (II) sulphate is reduced by reducing sugar to form insoluble copper (I) oxide which is a brick-red precipitate

slide41

increasing concentration

of reducing sugars

Principle of the test

Glucose is a reducing sugar. Cu2+ ions (blue) arereduced to brick-red (Cu2O) precipitate.

The colours obtained can therefore range from

blue

green

Yellow

orange

brick-red

Colour and amount of precipitate gives a rough estimate of amount of reducing sugars present

It is a semi-quantitative test.

slide42

Control

Blue, clear

Brick-red opaque

Orange, opaque

Green, opaque

Blue, clear

Increasing concentration of reducing sugars

Control

slide43

Red, cloudy

Dark red, opaque

Green, cloudy

Remained clear, blue

Remained clear, blue

Qty of RS: 4>2>5>1,3

slide44

Sensitivity of Benedict’s Test

(Different amounts of glucose)

0.001% - Remained clear, blue

0.01% - Slightly cloudy, blue

0.1% - Slightly cloudy, red ppt in blue solution,

1% - Opaque, orange-red

10% - Opaque, reddish brown

test for non reducing sugars
Test for non-reducing sugars

Name of test: Non-reducing sugar Test

§Not a specific test for non-reducing sugars.

§Based on inability to give a positive result in Benedict’s solution test.

§The non-reducing is then hydrolysed by boiling with dilute hydrochloric acid to break down the non-reducing sugars into its monosaccharides.

§The mixture is then neutralized/ made alkaline before performing the Benedict’s solution test.

Thus a non-reducing sugar is said to be present when it shows a negative Benedict’s solution test and a positive test after hydrolysis.

slide46
Method:

1. Add 2cm3 of non-reducing sugar into a test tube

2. Add 1cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid.

  • Boil the mixture for 1 minute.
  • Cool
  • Carefully neutralize with sodium hydrogen carbonate (check with ph paper) – be careful because vigorous effervescence may occur
  • Carry out Benedict’s solution test.

Results:

A brick-red precipitate will be formed.

slide47

Non-reducing sugars (eg, sucrose)

Note that in Tube 3, sucrose did not reduce the copper ions in the Benedict's solution. It remained blue and clear.

test for starch
Test for starch

Name of test: Iodine starch Test

§Iodine solution or iodine in potassium iodide solution

Method:

1. Add 2cm3 of 1% starch solution into a test tube

  • Add a few drops of iodine/ KI solution
  • Or add a few drops of iodine/ KI solution to the solid form of starch
slide49
Results:

A blue-black colouration is formed.

slide50

Starch granules

Potato stained with I/KI X 100

Potato stained with I/KI X 200

slide51

The same test when done with onion epidermis.

100x magnification

Onion stained with I/KI X 100 - The nuclei of these cells are light brown in this photograph. The numerous starch granules seen in potatoes are absent.

principle source and dietary importance of carbohydrates and fibre
Principle source and dietary importance of carbohydrates and fibre
  • http://www.nutramed.com/nutrition/carbohydrates.htm - detailed descriptions of carbohydrates and fibre in diet
  • http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4471
  • Principle source of carbohydrates and fibre
  • Carbohydrate intake should come mainly from complex carbohydrates - vegetables, fruits and grains - rather than the simple carbohydrates found in sugars. Complex carbohydrates add more fiber, vitamins and minerals to the diet than foods high in refined sugars. Foods high in complex carbohydrates are usually lower in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol. The American Heart Association recommends 25-30 grams of fiber per day.
slide54
Which foods are sources of complex carbohydrates?
  • Starches - Flour, bread, rice, corn, oats, barley, potatoes, legumes, fruits and vegetables
  • Fiber - Insoluble: whole-wheat breads and cereals, wheat bran, cabbage, beets, carrots, Brussels sprouts, turnips, cauliflower and apple skin (pectin)
  • Fiber - Soluble: oat bran, oats, legumes, citrus fruits, strawberries, apple pulp, psyllium, rice bran and barley
slide55
Which foods are sources of simple carbohydrates?
  • Sucrose - Table sugar, brown sugar, confectioners sugar, raw sugar and turbinado
  • Glucose - Dextrose, corn syrup and glucose syrup
  • Fructose - Fruits, vegetables and honey
  • High fructose corn syrup - Liquid sweetener that contains 42-90 percent fructose
  • Honey - Made up of glucose, fructose and water
  • Sugar alcohols - Sorbitol, mannitol, xybitol
  • Lactose - milk and milk products
  • Maltose, dextrose - cereals and some baked goods
slide56
Dietary importance of carbohydrates
    • Main source of energy
    • To form supporting structures eg cellulose cell walls in plants
    • To be converted to other organic compounds such as amino acids and fats
    • For the formation of nucleic acids (DNA)
    • To synthesize lubricants eg mucus which consists of a carbohydrate and a protein
    • To produce the nectar in some flowers.
slide57

DIETARY FIBRE (ROUGHAGE)

- Cell walls of plants consist mainly of cellulose

- No enzymes to digest cellulose

- Cellulose is not absorbed into the bloodstream

- Reaches the large intestine (colon)

- Undigested part of diet = fibre or roughage

- Egested in the faeces

slide58

Functions of fibre

1. Fibre prevents constipation.

Fibre + bacteria add bulk to contents of colon

Help it to retain water

Softens the faeces

Reduces time for undigested residues to pass out

2. Fibre helps peristalsis.

Peristalsis moves food along digestive tract

Harder, indigestible food stimulates muscles to contract more than soft food

Sources: fruits, vegetables, bran, wholemeal bread

slide61

In short…..

Biology by Jones & Jones