Job Analysis and Employee Selection Guide for UHS 2062 students at UTM Skudai, Johore, Malaysia Prepared by : SitiRokiahSiwok , firstname.lastname@example.org
Personnel Psychology • Two main areas to be covered: • Job analysis • Employee Selection • Recruiting and Interviewing • References and Testing
Job analysis • It is a process of gathering, analyzing and structuring about a job’s components, characteristics and requirements ( Sanchez & Levine, 2000) • A process of determining the work activities and requirements
Job Analysis • Very important. • A job analysis provides information for : • Job description • Employee selection • Performance Appraisal/Competency criteria • Job Evaluation • Job Classification • Job Design • Training • etc
Job Description • The written product of the job analysis is the job description, which is a brief 2-5 page summary of the tasks and job requirements found in the job analysis. • Thus, job analysis is the process of determining the work activities and requirements and job description is the written result of the job analysis. • Job analysis and job description is the basis for many HR activities, such as employee selection, evaluation , training, performance appraisal, job design etc (Brannick & Levine, 2002)
Employee Selection • Without a clear understanding of the tasks performed and competencies needed to perform the tasks, employee selection cannot be made. • With clear understanding and requirements for tasks identified, tests or interview questions can be formulated to determine suitability of applicants.
Performance Appraisal • The evaluation of employee performance must be job related, thus job analysis is crucial in the construction of a performance appraisal instrument (PAI). • Through job analysis, performance appraisal instrument, are specific, job-related and valid; leading to accurate performance appraisals. • PAI, when properly administered and utilized, serve as excellent source of employee training and counselling.
Job classification • Job analysis enables the HR to classify jobs into groups based in requirements and duties. • Useful in determining pay levels, transfers and promotions.
Job Evaluation • Another use of the job analysis is to determine the worth of a job . • The process of determining a job’s worth is called job evaluation. • Job evaluation is usually done in 2 stages, namely determining internal pay equity and determining external pay equity
Job Design • Job analysis information can be use to determine the optimal way in which a job should be performed. • Examples : the best way to sit at the computer table, the best way for a warehouse person to lift boxes etc • Good work design prevents wasted and unsafe motions; resulting in higher productivity and reduced number of injuries.
Training • Job analysis provides requirements of a job and yields lists of job activities that can be used to create training programs.
Personpower Planning • Personpower planning is important (but seldom used). • Personpower planning is to determine employees’ mobility within an organization, that is looking into other jobs that employees can be expected to be eventually promoted and become successful. • Job analysis results are used to compare all jobs in the company so as to promote the best employee from the most similar job, thus better match between the person being promoted and the requirements of the job.
Legal Guidelines Compliance • Any employment decision must be based on job-related information and job analysis is one of the ways to directly determine job relatedness. • No law specifically requires a job analysis , but several important guidelines and court cases mandate job analysis for all practical purposes.
Organizational Analysis • During the course of their work, job analysts often become aware of certain problems within the organization. • Job analysts thus help to correct lapses in the organization and correct problems so as to promote better organizational functioning.
Personnel Psychology:Recruitment • Revision: Job analysis is the cornerstone of personnel selection. Unless a complete an accurate picture of a job is done, it would be difficult to select excellent employees. • During the job analysis process, in addition to identifying the important task and duties, it is crucial to identify knowledge, skills and abilities needed to perform the job.
Recruitment • Methods used to select employees must be directly tied to the results of the job analysis. • Every essential knowledge, skill and ability identified in the job analysis should be tested and every test must relate to the job analysis.
Recruitment • Recruitment is attracting the right people for a certain job. • Two types of recruitment : • Internal • External There is a need to balance between internal and external recruitment.
Effective Employee Selection Techniques • Valid • Reduce the chance of legal challenge • Cost effective
Effective Employee Selection Techniques • Valid : A valid selection test is based on a job analysis (content validity), predicts work behaviour (criterion validity) and measures the construct it purpots to measure (construct validity). • Reduce the chance of legal challenge • Cost effective : in all terms, that is to purchase or create, to administer and to score.
Effective Employee Selection Techniques • Interviews • Résumé • References • Testing
Interviews • Structure • Structured • Unstructured • Semi structured • Style • One to one • Serial • Return • panel • Medium • Face to face, telephone etc
Résumés • Résumés are summaries of an applicant’s professional and educational background. • Commonly asked by employers but little is known about the value of predicting employee performance. • It is unclear how much predictive value résumés have.
Resumes • Résumés may not predict performance partly because they are meant to “advertise” an applicant; making the “strengths of the applicant more obvious and weaknesses hard to find”. • Result: many résumés contain inaccurate information. • Aamodt and Williams (2005) found that 25% of résumés contained inaccurate information. • No best way to write résumés.
References • Common belief in psychology is : the best predictor of future performance is past performance. • Examples :........ • Verifying previous employment is not difficult but DIFFICULT to ascertain the QUALITY of previous performance. • ?
References • Terms : • Reference checks is the process of confirming the accuracy of information given by the applicant. • A reference is the expression of an opinion, either orally or written regarding applicant’s ability, previous performance, work habits, character, work habits etc. • A letter of recommendation is a letter expressing an opinion regarding an applicant’s ability etc.
Predicting Performance • Using applicant Training and Education • Min level of education and training • Inconsistent results regarding validity • Meta-analysis indicated a student’s GPA can predict performance ...
Testing • Job performance can also be predicted using applicants’ knowledge; hence job knowledge tests are designed to measure how much a person knows about a job. • Examples : computer programming knowledge etc • Standardised tests are also available .
Testing • According to ability. • ..which tap the extent to which an applicant can learn or perform a job-related skill. • Ability tests are used primarily for occupations in Applicants are not expected to know how to perform the job at the time of hire. Eg: police officers, fire fighters, military personnel.
Testing: According to Ability Cognitive Ability: • Includes oral and written comprehension, oral and written expression, numerical etc. • Important for professional, clerical and supervisory jobs. • Meta-analyses suggests that cognitive ability is one of the best predictors of performance across all jobs, but job-specific meta-analyses raise doubts about the assumptions. • E.gs of cognitive ability test : Wonderlic Personnel Test, Miller Analogies Test and Quick Test
Testing: According to Ability Other ability tests are : Perceptual Ability Psychomotor Ability Physical Ability
Predicting Performance: Using Applicant’s Skills • This method measures the extent to which an applicant has already a job-related skill. • Two most common methods are work sample and assessment centre. • With work-sample, the applicant performs actual job-related tasks; excellent selection tools and has high validity. Applicants also see the direct connection.
Assessment Centers • An assessment centre is a selection technique characterized by the use of multiple assessment methods that allow multiple assessors to actually observe applicants perform simulated tasks. • Major advantage: • Assessment methods are all job related and multiple assessors help guard against some types of biases.
Predicting Performance: Using Personality, Interest and Character • Personality Inventories • Interest inventories • Integrity Tests • Graphology
Personality Inventories • Increasingly popular as an employee selection method. • Falls into 2 categories based on their intended purpose: • 1) normal personality • 2) abnormal personality (psychopathology)
Personality Inventories: Normal Personality • Tests of normal personality measures traits exhibited by normal individuals in everyday life. Eg. of such traits are: extraversion, shyness, assertiveness and friendliness. • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator • Edwards Personal Preference Schedule • 16 PF • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Personality Inventories: Normal Personality • There are 100s of personality inventories, there is a general agreement that most personality traits can be placed into one of the five personality dimensions, known as the “BIG FIVE” or the five factor model. • Openness to experience (bright and inquisitive) • Conscientiousness (reliable, dependable) • Extraversion (outgoing, friendly) • Agreeableness (works well with others) • Emotional stability
Personality Inventories: Psychopathology • Tests of abnormal personality determine whether individuals have serious psychological problems such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. • Seldom used in IOP unless required as part of medical examinations .
Interest Inventories • Designed to tap vocational interests. • Most commonly used is the Strong Interest Inventory(SII) which asked individuals to indicate whether they like or dislike 325 items such as bargaining, repairing electrical wire and taking responsibility. • Answers provide profile of the person.
Integrity tests • Informs the employer of the applicant’s honesty; such as the probability that an applicant will steal money or merchandise • One study estimates that 50% of employees access to cash steal from their employers (Wimbush and Dalton, 1997).
Graphology • Handwriting analysis . • Used 8% in the UK and 75% in France. • The idea behind it is that the way people write reveals their personality, which in turn indicates work performance.
Main references: • Aamodt, M. G ( 2010). Industrial/Organizational Psychology. An Applied Approach.( 6th Ed) USA: Wadsworth • Spector, P. E. ( 2008). Industrial and Organizational Psychology (5thed). USA: Wiley