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Development Planning and Administration MPA – 403 Lecture 17 • FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood Bagram
What is a Project? • A project is a planned undertaking which is a set of interrelated and coordinated activities designed to achieve certain predetermined objectives within a given budget and period of time.
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) What is monitoring? • Day-to-day follow up of activities during implementation to measure progress and identify deviations • Answers the question, “what are we doing?”
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Why monitor activities? • Identifies and addresses problems • Ensures effective use of resources • Ensures quality and learning to improve project activities • Strengthens accountability
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) What is evaluation? • Periodic assessment of overall achievement and impacts • Systematic way of learning from experience to IMPROVE current activities and promote better planning for future action • Answers the question, “what have we achieved and what impact have we made”
Why M&E? • M&E should be part of the design of a project • Ensures systematic reporting • Communicates results and accountability • Measures efficiency and effectiveness • Provides information for improved decision making • Ensures effective allocation of resources • Promotes continuous learning and improvement
When Is Evaluation Desirable? • Program evaluation is often used when programs have been functioning for some time. This is called Retrospective Evaluation. • However, evaluation should also be conducted when a new program within a service is being introduced. These are called Prospective Evaluations. • A prospective evaluation identifies ways to increase the impact of a project on clients; it examines and describes a project’s attributes; and, it identifies how to improve delivery mechanisms to be more effective.
Prospective vs. Retrospective Evaluation • Prospective Evaluation, determines what ought to happen (and why) • Retrospective Evaluation, determines what actually happened (and why)
Evaluation Matrix The broadest and most common classification of evaluation identifies two kinds of evaluation: • Formative evaluation. Evaluation of components and activities of a program other than their outcomes. • Summative evaluation. Evaluation of the degree to which a program has achieved its desired outcomes, and the degree to which any other outcomes (positive or negative) have resulted from the program.
Who conducts evaluation? • Internal evaluation (self evaluation), in which people within a program sponsor, conduct and control the evaluation. • External evaluation, in which someone from beyond the program acts as the evaluator and controls the evaluation.
issues • Difficulty in precise definition of objectives and goals • Lack of appropriate or adequate data • Inadequate understanding of social and cultural activities • Weak incentives or controls to guide behavior • Political interference • Low managerial capacities
issues • Vision: • Leadership: project demands leadership, not merely the funds • Organizational structure: expertise for training, material development, research & evaluation • Consistent policy and approach
issues • Commitment gap: • Organizational Gap: Absence of permanent organizational structure – led to coordination gap • Financial Resources Gap: limited financial assistance, and uncertainty about funding • Technical Capacity Gap:
issues • Planning Errors • Managing versus Doing • Ineffective Communications • Time Management • Cost/Resource Management • Performance Management
issues • High resistance to change; • High cost of travel and communications; • Gender disparities in work and benefits; • Great exposure to disasters. • Low level of participation • Do not have a clear and well defined philosophy of development; • Organisational centred approach rather than a people-centred approach; • Top-down decision making structure; • Unproductive competition; • Insufficient self-criticism and self-evaluation; • Few income or revenue generating initiatives to lessen the dependency on donors;
Traditional Approach • Owner defines project needs and hires • Bid documents prepared and bids solicited for low price WHERE IS PERFORMANCE ??? !!!
Traditional Approach • Extensive disputes and litigation • Questionable quality • Unacceptable accident rates • Poor coordination and communication
A Strategy for Pakistan • A vision: a national framework development • A commitment: political leadership - Ministers, Parliamentarians, and political parties support • Partnerships: joint Federal and Provincial agreements • Guaranteed Financial Resources: Consistent flow of financial resources • Clear Roles and Responsibilities: Clearly spelling out role and responsibilities of Federal Govt., Provincial Govts., and District Govts. • A strong Professional base: An Institute or Resource Centre for technical tasks like training, material development, research etc.
Successful Project Management! Having achieved project objectives: • Within time • Within cost • At the desired performance level • Effective & efficient use of resources • Within minimum or mutually agreed scope changes • Within culture and • Accepted by the stakeholders
21st Century Project Manager Elements of Competency • Talent - basis for performance • Knowledge - information necessary to perform • Skills - tools to utilize talent & knowledge • Experience - understanding how to perform efficiently and effectively • Motivation - ambition to perform successfully
Conclusion • Project Monitoring & Evaluation is essential to show that our projects achieve their objectives. • This is why we need to assess the challenges of our system, and to improve it.
Thank you for your kind attention! • FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood Bagram