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Development Planning and Administration MPA – 403 Lecture 17 PowerPoint Presentation
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Development Planning and Administration MPA – 403 Lecture 17
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  1. Development Planning and Administration MPA – 403 Lecture 17 • FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood Bagram

  2. Reflections

  3. Project Monitoring & Evaluation:issues & remedies

  4. What is a Project? • A project is a planned undertaking which is a set of interrelated and coordinated activities designed to achieve certain predetermined objectives within a given budget and period of time.

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) What is monitoring? • Day-to-day follow up of activities during implementation to measure progress and identify deviations • Answers the question, “what are we doing?”

  6. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Why monitor activities? • Identifies and addresses problems • Ensures effective use of resources • Ensures quality and learning to improve project activities • Strengthens accountability

  7. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) What is evaluation? • Periodic assessment of overall achievement and impacts • Systematic way of learning from experience to IMPROVE current activities and promote better planning for future action • Answers the question, “what have we achieved and what impact have we made”

  8. Monitoring vs. Evaluation (M&E)

  9. Why M&E? • M&E should be part of the design of a project • Ensures systematic reporting • Communicates results and accountability • Measures efficiency and effectiveness • Provides information for improved decision making • Ensures effective allocation of resources • Promotes continuous learning and improvement

  10. Where does M&E fit?

  11. When Is Evaluation Desirable? • Program evaluation is often used when programs have been functioning for some time. This is called Retrospective Evaluation. • However, evaluation should also be conducted when a new program within a service is being introduced. These are called Prospective Evaluations. • A prospective evaluation identifies ways to increase the impact of a project on clients; it examines and describes a project’s attributes; and, it identifies how to improve delivery mechanisms to be more effective.

  12. Prospective vs. Retrospective Evaluation • Prospective Evaluation, determines what ought to happen (and why) • Retrospective Evaluation, determines what actually happened (and why)

  13. Evaluation Matrix The broadest and most common classification of evaluation identifies two kinds of evaluation: • Formative evaluation. Evaluation of components and activities of a program other than their outcomes. • Summative evaluation. Evaluation of the degree to which a program has achieved its desired outcomes, and the degree to which any other outcomes (positive or negative) have resulted from the program.

  14. Who conducts evaluation? • Internal evaluation (self evaluation), in which people within a program sponsor, conduct and control the evaluation. • External evaluation, in which someone from beyond the program acts as the evaluator and controls the evaluation.

  15. issues • Difficulty in precise definition of objectives and goals • Lack of appropriate or adequate data • Inadequate understanding of social and cultural activities • Weak incentives or controls to guide behavior • Political interference • Low managerial capacities

  16. issues • Vision: • Leadership: project demands leadership, not merely the funds • Organizational structure: expertise for training, material development, research & evaluation • Consistent policy and approach

  17. issues • Commitment gap: • Organizational Gap: Absence of permanent organizational structure – led to coordination gap • Financial Resources Gap: limited financial assistance, and uncertainty about funding • Technical Capacity Gap:

  18. issues • Planning Errors • Managing versus Doing • Ineffective Communications • Time Management • Cost/Resource Management • Performance Management

  19. issues • High resistance to change; • High cost of travel and communications; • Gender disparities in work and benefits; • Great exposure to disasters. • Low level of participation • Do not have a clear and well defined philosophy of development; • Organisational centred approach rather than a people-centred approach; • Top-down decision making structure; • Unproductive competition; • Insufficient self-criticism and self-evaluation; • Few income or revenue generating initiatives to lessen the dependency on donors;

  20. Traditional Approach • Owner defines project needs and hires • Bid documents prepared and bids solicited for low price WHERE IS PERFORMANCE ??? !!!

  21. Traditional Approach • Extensive disputes and litigation • Questionable quality • Unacceptable accident rates • Poor coordination and communication

  22. A Strategy for Pakistan • A vision: a national framework development • A commitment: political leadership - Ministers, Parliamentarians, and political parties support • Partnerships: joint Federal and Provincial agreements • Guaranteed Financial Resources: Consistent flow of financial resources • Clear Roles and Responsibilities: Clearly spelling out role and responsibilities of Federal Govt., Provincial Govts., and District Govts. • A strong Professional base: An Institute or Resource Centre for technical tasks like training, material development, research etc.

  23. …Achieving Dreams

  24. …Achieving Dreams

  25. …Achieving Dreams

  26. …Achieving Dreams

  27. …Achieving Dreams

  28. Successful Project Management! Having achieved project objectives: • Within time • Within cost • At the desired performance level • Effective & efficient use of resources • Within minimum or mutually agreed scope changes • Within culture and • Accepted by the stakeholders

  29. 21st Century Project Manager Elements of Competency • Talent - basis for performance • Knowledge - information necessary to perform • Skills - tools to utilize talent & knowledge • Experience - understanding how to perform efficiently and effectively • Motivation - ambition to perform successfully

  30. Conclusion • Project Monitoring & Evaluation is essential to show that our projects achieve their objectives. • This is why we need to assess the challenges of our system, and to improve it.

  31. Thank you for your kind attention! • FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood Bagram