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Fundamentals of Public Administration MPA – 406 Lecture - 24. FACILITATOR Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood 0333-5188677, majidbagram@yahoo.com. Reflections. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT. The Need for Planning:. Functions of Planning Commission.

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Fundamentals of Public Administration MPA – 406 Lecture - 24


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    1. Fundamentals of Public Administration MPA – 406 Lecture - 24 • FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood • 0333-5188677, majidbagram@yahoo.com

    2. Reflections

    3. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT • The Need for Planning:

    4. Functions of Planning Commission Following are the major functions of Planning Commission: • To prepare comprehensive national plan for socio-economic development of the country

    5. Functions of Planning Commission • To formulate within the framework of national plan, of annual plan and annual development program projects and programs of national development.

    6. Functions of Planning Commission • Monitoring the implementation of all major development projects and programs.

    7. Functions of Planning Commission • Continuous evaluation of economic situation and coordination of economic policies

    8. Functions of Planning Commission • Examination and technical appraisal of development projects.

    9. Relationship of Plan and Projects • There is a complementary relationship between plan and projects. • Projects are to plan what bricks are to building.

    10. Process of Project Completion A project follows a sequential process of “beginning” and ending which is as follows: 1. Projects Identification

    11. Process of Project Completion A project follows a sequential process of “beginning” and ending which is as follows: 2. Project study (feasibility)

    12. Process of Project Completion A project follows a sequential process of “beginning” and ending which is as follows: 3. Project Preparation

    13. Process of Project Completion A project follows a sequential process of “beginning” and ending which is as follows: 4. Project Appraisal

    14. Process of Project Completion A project follows a sequential process of “beginning” and ending which is as follows: 5. Project Approval

    15. Process of Project Completion A project follows a sequential process of “beginning” and ending which is as follows: 6. Project Implementation and Monitoring

    16. Process of Project Completion A project follows a sequential process of “beginning” and ending which is as follows: 7. Project Evaluation

    17. Provincial Planning Organization • At the provincial level there is Planning and Development Department. • The P&D is headed by the Chairman P&D. • The Secretary P&D is the administrative head. • The Chairman is assisted by a Chief Economist and Members and Joint Chief Economist. • Members are assisted by Chief of Section. • Each Chief of Section deals with one or more sectors of the provincial economy i.e., agriculture, forestry, tourism, livestock, irrigation, industry, water supply, social welfare, population planning education etc.

    18. Functions of Planning & Development The functions of P & D are as follows: • To prepare Annual Development Programme in coordination with other departments 2. To prepare Five Year and other development plans 3. To coordinate External Capital Assistance

    19. Decision Making: The process of examining your possibilities, comparing them, and choosing a course of action.

    20. Six C's of Decision Making • 1.Construct. • 2.Compile. • 3.Collect. • 4.Compare. • 5.Consider. • 6.Commit.

    21. Six C's of Decision Making • Construct a clear picture of precisely what must be decided. • Compile a list of requirements that must be met. • Collect information on alternatives that meet the requirements. Decision Making Process

    22. Six C's of Decision Making • Compare alternatives that meet the requirements. • Consider the "what might go wrong" factor with each alternative. • Commit to a decision and follow through with it. Decision Making Process

    23. QUALITIES OF A SUCCESSFUL DECISION MAKER COURAGE – is of particular importance and involves the willingness to take the risks. SENSITIVITY – good decision makers seem to have some sort of antenna that makes them particularly sensitive to situations and others.

    24. QUALITIES OF A SUCCESSFUL DECISION MAKER ENERGY – People must have the energy and desire to make things happen CREATIVITY – Successful decision makers tend to be creative thinkers. They develop new ways to solve problems.

    25. DECISION MAKING-STYLES A1 – You solve the problem or make the decision yourself, using information available to you at that time. A11 – you obtain the necessary information from your subordinates then decide on the solution to the problem yourself.

    26. DECISION MAKING-STYLES C1 – you share the problem with relevant subordinates individually, getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. You make decisions that may or may not reflect your subordinates’ influence.

    27. DECISION MAKING-STYLES C11 – you share the problems with the subordinates as a group, collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. Then you make decisions that may or may not reflect your subordinates’ influence.

    28. DECISION MAKING-STYLES G11 - you share the problems with the subordinates as a group. Together you generate and evaluate alternatives and attempt to reach agreement on a solution. Your role is much like that of a chairman. You do not try to influence the group to adopt YOUR solutions, and you are willing to accept and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group.

    29. How are decisions madein organizations? • Decision environments include: • Certain environments. • Risk environments. • Uncertain environments.

    30. How are decisions madein organizations? • Certain environments. • Exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation. • Certainty is the ideal problem solving and decision making environment.

    31. How are decisions madein organizations? • Risk environments. • Exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they can assign probabilities of occurrence. • Probabilities can be assigned through objective statistical procedures or personal intuition.

    32. How are decisions madein organizations? • Uncertain environments. • Exist when managers have so little information that they cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and possible outcomes. • Uncertainty forces decision makers to rely on individual and group creativity to succeed in problem solving.

    33. Types of decisions • Programmed decisions. • Involve routine problems that arise regularly and can be addressed through standard responses. • Nonprogrammed decisions. • Involve nonroutine problems that require solutions specifically tailored to the situation at hand

    34. How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? • Intuition. • The ability to know or recognize quickly any situation.

    35. How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? • Judgmental heuristics. • Simplifying strategies or “rules of thumb” used to make decisions. • Makes it easier to deal with uncertainty and limited information. • Can lead to systematic errors that affect the quality and/or ethics of decisions.

    36. How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? • Creativity factors. • Creativity in decision making involves the development of unique and novel responses to problems and opportunities. • Creativity is especially important in a dynamic environment full of nonroutine problems.

    37. Reasons for decision making failure • Managers copy others. • Managers tend to emphasize problems and solutions rather than successful implementation. • Managers use participation rarely.

    38. Decision Making Checklist • Is my action legal? • Is it beneficial? • How would I feel if my family found out about this? • How would I feel if my decision were printed in the local newspaper?

    39. Delegation defined • Delegation is the process that makes management possible, because management is the process of getting results accomplished through others.

    40. Delegation • Unless you delegate tasks to your subordinates, your team will become inefficient and demoralized. "I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow."- Woodrow Wilson

    41. Why Delegate? • Globalization, • Information technology explosion, • Increased mergers, • Heightened competition, and • Higher expectations of nearly every customer

    42. Tasks you should not delegate Following activities are sensitive & should not be delegated: • Hiring • Firing • Pay issues • Policy

    43. Conclusion

    44. FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood

    45. Fundamentals of Public Administration MPA – 406 Lecture - 25 • FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood • 0333-5188677, majidbagram@yahoo.com

    46. Reflections

    47. Advantages of Delegation Positive aspects of delegation include: • Higher efficiency • Increased motivation • Develops the skills of your team • Better distribution of work through the group • Faster decision-making

    48. Advantages of Delegation • The organization: increased productivity. • The department / team: becomes more enthusiastic, active, and successful. • Employees: career development, increases energy.