PERFORMANCE AND CAREER MANAGEMENT LECTURE NO - 28
RECAP • Career and its basics • Traditional and protean careers • Career Management and its Process • Career Planning • Organizational Career Planning
Agenda of Today’s Lecture • Career Development • Career Stages • Career Choices and Preferences.
Career Development • Career Development is a “continuous lifelong process of developmental experiences that focuses on seeking, obtaining and processing information about self, occupational and educational alternatives, life styles and role options” (Hansen, 1976). • Put another way, career development is the process through which people come to understand them as they relate to the world of work and their role in it.
Career Development(contd.) • This career development process is where an individual fashions a work identity. In America, we are what we do, thus it becomes a person’s identity.
Career Development(contd.) • It is imperative when educating our young people that our school systems assist and consider the significance of this responsibility for our youth and their future. The influences on and outcomes of career development are one aspect of socialization as part of a broader process of human development.
Career Development Theories • Trait-factor theories • Sociology and career choice • Developmental/Self-concept theory • Vocational choice and personality theories • Behavioral approaches • Narrative approach
Why Study Theory? Theories and research describing career behavior provide the “conceptual glue” for as well as describe where, when and for what purpose career counseling, career education, career guidance and other career interventions should be implemented.
Why Study Theory?(Contd.) The process of career development theory comes from four disciplines: • Differential Psychology- interested in work and occupations • Personality- view individuals as an organizer of their own experiences • Sociology- focus on occupational mobility • Developmental Psychology- concerned with the “life course”
Why Study Theory?(Contd.) “Theory is a picture, an image, a description, a representation of reality. It is not reality itself. It is a way we can think about some part of reality so that we can comprehend it”(Krumboltz)
Trait-factor theories The oldest theoretical approach. • Assumes a straightforward matching of an individual’s abilities and interests with the world’s vocational opportunities can be accomplished and once accomplished, solved the problems of vocational choice for that individual.
Sociology and career choice Reality or accident theory of vocational choice • Societal circumstance beyond the control of the individual contribute significantly to career choices and that the principal task confronting a person is the development of techniques to cope effectively with the environment.
Sociology and career choice(Contd.) • The degree of freedom of occupational choice a person has is far less than might be assumed. • Being in the “right place at the right time.”
Social anchor points • Two social anchor points exist to fix a person’s occupation. At one extreme is the society in which occupation is hereditary; offspring follow parents, or at least the parent’s career and life style impose rigid limits on the variety of careers children consider.
Social anchor points(Contd.) • At the other extreme in which occupational choice is the exclusive result of the individual’s personal characteristics. • Occupational choice lies somewhere in between the two anchor points.
Developmental/Self-concept theoryBuehler, Super, Samler, Ginzberg and Carl Rogers • Individuals develop more clearly defined self-concepts as they grow older, although these vary to conform with the changes in one’s view of reality as correlated with aging.
Developmental/Self-concept theory(Contd.)Buehler, Super, Samler, Ginzberg and Carl Rogers • People develop images of the occupational world which they compare with their self-image in trying to make career decisions • Eventual career decision is based on the similarity between an individual’s self-concept and the vocational concept of the career eventually chosen.
Personality theories • Particular personality factors involved in career choice and career satisfaction. • Personality characteristics of people in different vocations, the life styles of various professionals, psychopathology associated with professional activity, and the specific needs of worker in particular industries or jobs.
Personality theories(Contd.) • The general hypothesis is that workers select their jobs because they see potential for the satisfaction of their needs. Exposure to a job gradually modifies the personality characteristics of the worker.
Psychological needs, values and careers • Stemmed from the assumption that occupational activities are related to basic needs and that the adequacy of occupational choice improves as people are better able to identify their own needs and the potential need satisfaction offered by a particular occupation.
Psychological needs, values and careers(Contd.) • Satisfactions result from a job which meets our needs today, or from a job which promises to meet them in the future.
Needs reduction approach • A hungry person will take any job to obtain enough to eat. Once the need for food has been reduced, a new job which offers the potential of satisfying other physical and psychological needs will be sought. To the degree that one can find and enter jobs relevant to higher order needs, the more or less satisfied with work one will be.
Needs reduction approach(Contd.) • It seems reasonable to expect, if one postulates needs as a factor in occupational selection, that needs satisfaction is directly related to job satisfaction.
Occupations and mental health • There is a long history of interest in the degree to which people engaged in various occupational activities display various forms of psychopathology. • Various kinds of interests and psychopathology (overall adjustment)
Occupations and mental health(Contd.) • The degree to which work settings interact with and produce stresses which cause strains to individuals leading to both work disorder and personal disorder.
Behavioral approaches • Interest in observing individual environmental interaction in a behavioral mode. • Social learning approach to career decision-making e.g. Mitchell, Jone and Krumboltz (1979) • Social skills training as a career skill training approach.
Mentoring Do you want to move your career forward? • Would you like to develop your leadership skills as well as help others learn, grow, and improve their skills? • Or would you like to find someone who can help you do these things?
Mentoring (Contd.) You can. Through a mentoring partnership. • More professionals these days are actively pursuing mentoring to advance their careers. And whether you're on the giving or receiving end, these types of partnerships can benefit your career.
Mentoring (Contd.) • A mentoring partnership can be rewarding to both people, personally and professionally. It's an opportunity to develop communication skills, expand your viewpoints, and consider new ways of approaching situations. And both partners can advance their careers in the process.
What is Mentoring? • Mentoring is a relationship between two people with the goal of professional and personal development. The "mentor" is usually an experienced individual who shares knowledge, experience, and advice with a less experienced person, or "mentee.“
What is Mentoring?(Contd.) • Mentors become trusted advisers and role models – people who have "been there" and "done that." They support and encourage their mentees by offering suggestions and knowledge, both general and specific. The goal is help mentees improve their skills and, hopefully, advance their careers.
What is Mentoring?(Contd.) • A mentoring partnership may be between two people within the same company, same industry, or same networking organization. However the partners come together, the relationship should be based on mutual trust and respect, and it typically offers personal and professional advantages for both parties.
Mentoring and Other Professional Relationships • Coaches, trainers, and consultants can all help you learn and grow professionally. Mentoring is a unique combination of all of these. Let's explore some of the similarities and differences between mentoring and these other professions. • Coaches help you to explore where you are in your career, where you want to go, and how you might get there. A coach will also support you in taking action to move toward your goal.
Mentoring and Other Professional Relationships(Contd.) • Coaches and mentors differ in three main ways. First, a coach is generally paid, whereas your mentor will usually be making a voluntary commitment. This means that you can start working with a coach straight away, and that you can rely them not to cancel sessions because "Something urgent's come up". Finding a mentor can take longer, and even when you do, your mentor may find it harder to keep space in their day for your mentoring appointment. • Second, while coaches tend to guide you in mapping out your future, mentors actually suggest several paths you might take, although the choice of where to go next remains yours.
Mentoring and Other Professional Relationships • Beyond that, of course, good coaches are professionally trained and qualified, so you can rely on getting a high-quality service from them. They also bring their experience of helping other people with career and life issues similar to those that you're facing. • Trainers help you learn and develop specific skills and knowledge. They typically set the topic, the pace, the goals, and the learning method. While you will obviously choose courses that match your requirements as closely as possible, training courses, by their nature, start with their own agendas rather than with your situation.
Mentoring and Other Professional Relationships(Contd.) • Mentoring, however, can be tailored to your needs. While training is often best suited for gaining knowledge and skills, mentoring can also help you develop personal qualities and competencies. • Career Consultants or Career Counselors mostly work with people in transition between jobs, rather than helping you develop your skills when in a particular role. And, again, your relationship will often be a commercial one.
Benefits to the Mentor Becoming a mentor can enrich your life on a personal and professional level by helping you do the following: • Build your leadership skills – It helps you develop your ability to motivate and encourage others. This can help you become a better manager, employee, and team member. • Improve your communication skills – Because your mentee may come from a different background or environment, the two of you may not "speak the same language." This may force you to find a way to communicate more effectively as you navigate your way through the mentoring relationship.
Benefits to the Mentor(Contd.) • Learn new perspectives – By working with someone less experienced and from a different background, you can gain a fresh perspective on things and learn a new way of thinking – which can help in your work life as well as your personal life. • Advance your career – Refining your leadership skills can strengthen your on-the-job performance, perhaps helping you get that promotion to higher management – or into management in the first place. Showing that you've helped others learn and grow is becoming more and more essential to advancement in today's business world.
Benefits to the Mentor(Contd.) • Gain personal satisfaction – It can be very personally fulfilling to know that you've directly contributed to someone's growth and development. Seeing your mentee succeed as result of your input is a reward in itself.
Benefits to the Mentee A trusted mentor can help you do the following: • Gain valuable advice – Mentors can offer valuable insight into what it takes to get ahead. They can be your guide and "sounding board" for ideas, helping you decide on the best course of action in difficult situations. You may learn shortcuts that help you work more effectively and avoid "reinventing the wheel."
Benefits to the Mentee(Contd.) • Develop your knowledge and skills – They can help you identify the skills and expertise you need to succeed. They may teach you what you need to know, or advise you on where to go for the information you need. • Improve your communication skills – Just like your mentor, you may also learn to communicate more effectively, which can further help you at work.
Benefits to the Mentee(Contd.) • Learn new perspectives – Again, you can learn new ways of thinking from your mentor, just as your mentor can learn from you. • Build your network – Your mentor can offer an opportunity to expand your existing network of personal and professional contacts.
Benefits to the Mentee(Contd.) • Advance your career – A mentor helps you stay focused and on track in your career through advice, skills development, networking, and so on.
Suggestions for Self-Development • Create your own mission statement. • Take responsibility for your own growth. • Make enhancement your priority, not advancement. • Talk to people in positions to which you aspire; get suggestions on how to proceed. • Make investment in yourself a priority.
Career Stages • Career stages is the process by which employees progress through a series of stages • Each stage is characterized by a different set of developmental tasks, activities, and relationships • There are four career stages: • Exploration • Establishment • Maintenance • Mid Career • Late Career • Decline
Mid career Exploration Estblshment Late Career Decline Will performance increase or decline? Job Performance 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 Age Traditional Career Stages High Low Transition from school to work Getting first job and being accepted Preparing for retirement The elder statesperson
Exploration • includes school and early work experiences, such as internships. • involves: • trying out different fields • discovering likes and dislikes • forming attitudes toward work and social relationship patterns