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Theoretical Framework

Theoretical Framework

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Theoretical Framework

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  1. Theoretical Framework And Logical Proof

  2. What is the point? Theoretical frameworks will help you form strong, articulate arguments Logical proofs will also do this, but give you ideas of how to structure your essay effectively too

  3. BA 7 and 8

  4. Theoretical Framework

  5. Theoretical Framework • Made up of ideologies • Ideologies are basic values, beliefs, assumptions about life, the world, and the universe • Most apparent through • Commonplaces • Rhetorical Situation

  6. Commonplaces Also known as “common knowledge” Commonly believed by members of a community Only common amongst specific groups Different between different groups Often so common they don’t seem to be commonplaces Contested commonplaces are often big issues

  7. Examples of commonplaces Everyone drives on the right side of the road Everyone drive a car Roads are only meant for cars What are the underlying values here?

  8. What is the point? Commonplace create an I-them dichotomy Commonplaces create an other These vary by culture, community, region, nation, et c.

  9. Now you try… • Naming one of your commonplaces • What is the underlying value here? • What is the “other” ? • Who would fit an example of that other?

  10. Rhetorical Situation • Made up of • The topic of discussion, the issue • The audience and their relationship to the issue • The speaker/writer, their reputation, and their relationship to the issue

  11. Rhetorical Situations • This class • What is the topic? • Who is the audience and what is their relationship to the topic? • Who is the speaker, what is their reputation, and what is their reputation to the topic?

  12. Rhetorical Situations 2 • A news (anchor) report on graffiti • What is the topic? • Who is the audience and what is their relationship to the topic? • Who is the speaker, what is their reputation, and what is their reputation to the topic?

  13. Logical Proof Also known as types of evidence (something you need to discuss in BA5)

  14. Logical proofs • Make up logos • Most commonly seen as • Deductions • Induction • Enthymemes • Rhetorical Examples • Historical Example • Fictional Example • Analogy • Similar and Contrary Examples • Maxims • Signs

  15. Deductions Also known as “reasoning” Moving from something general to something specific to show similarity

  16. Deduction Cont’d • Example: • All people are mortal • Charlie Sheen is a person • Therefore, Charlie Sheen is mortal • Structured as • Major Premise • Minor Premise • Conclusion

  17. Induction • Opposite of deduction • Move from specific to general • Structured as • Minor Premise • Major Premise • Conclusion • Example • Charlie Sheen is a person • All people are mortal • Therefore, Charlie Sheen is mortal

  18. Enthymemes • A fancy word for syllogisms which is a fancy word for deductive argument • Structured • Major Premise • Minor Premise • Conclusion • Example • Think Different • Apple is different • Think Apple

  19. Rhetorical Examples • Examples that can apply to anyone or anything in that same class • For example, • A specific teacher who everyone can relate to having had • A particular friend that everyone can relate to having

  20. Historical Examples • Usually successful when used • Show precedent—example of present situation occurring in the past • For Example • This war in Iraq is going to be long and drawn out similar to other wars the US has been involved in, such as Vietnam, Korea, and World War II

  21. Fictional Example • An imaginary example—fictitious • Meant to: • show how something could happen (hypothetical) • or teach a moral • For example • The lion and the mouse, • The tortoise and the hair

  22. Analogy • Using one hypothetical example compared to another to show similarities or differences • For example, • It is silly to argue that leaders should be chosen by balloting as it would be to argue that Olympic athletes or the pilots of planes should be chosen by chance

  23. Similar and Contrary Examples Comparing to like things: simile Comparing unlike things: contraries The purpose is to show how the two are similar or different and try to figure out why they are different

  24. Maxims • Wise sayings that are generally accepted In a community • Tend to build off of or work with commonplaces • For example, • An apple a day keeps the doctor away • What is the underlying value here?

  25. Signs • Physical facts or real events that usually accompany some other event or situation • For example • A fever usually means you are sick • Failed negotiations usually mean an altercation will ensue • Uncharacteristically using big words is often a sign of trying to sound smarter • Asking about family is a sign of kindness and respect

  26. If you haven't done it, do it. Make sure you are caught up on all the readings.

  27. Argument Clinic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQFKtI6gn9Y

  28. Practice http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVsl6r5d-ds Try to locate any Logical Proofs used in this speech

  29. Just because… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLjN2I3xQ4w&feature=related

  30. BA7  DueFriday the 24th Objective: To demonstrate your ability to analyze the effectiveness of support in an argument. Description: Choose one of the following articles from First-Year Writing, and in a 400-600 word essay, identify and analyze the author’s use of support. * Science and Technology in World Agriculture: Narratives and Discourses (pp. 501-506)  -- How does Scandizzo try to persuade you that the World Bank “intervenes with a soothing message”? Where exactly does Scandizzo try to explain why the World Bank would want to offer a balance between the two sides? Which of Scandizzo’s methods of persuasion are least and most effective? * Till Children Do Us Part (pp. 386-387) -- What kinds of evidence does Coontz use to support her argument? Is it effective for the audience that she is targeting in this article? * Kant or Cant: The Myth of the Democratic Peace (pp. 431-444) -- Near the end of his essay, Layne describes democratic peace theory as “dangerous.” What in his article would most persuade you to agree with him—what evidence? What logical reasoning? Why do you think that some readers would respond passionately to this description of democratic peace theory?  Length: 400 - 600 wordsFormat: MLA style for internal citations and works cited.