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The Women’s March on Versailles. women upset about bread prices gather at Versailles – October 5, 1789 King Louis XVI forced to go back to Paris. The Political Reconstruction of France. Constitution of 1791 - Legislative Assembly becomes main law making body/ limited monarchy

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the women s march on versailles
The Women’s March on Versailles
  • women upset about bread prices gather at Versailles – October 5, 1789
  • King Louis XVI forced to go back to Paris
the political reconstruction of france
The Political Reconstruction of France
  • Constitution of 1791 - Legislative Assembly becomes main law making body/ limited monarchy
  • only tax paying citizens could vote
  • provinces and parlements replaced by departments – equally sized administrative units
olympe de gouges
Olympe de Gouges
  • Declaration of Rights of Women calls for women to be treated as citizens
  • eventually sent to the guillotine
the economic reconstruction of france
The Economic Reconstruction of France
  • Land is confiscated from Roman Catholic Church & sold creating…
    • further inflation
    • religious schism
    • civil war
  • assignats – government bonds from the sale of church property – used as currency, used so often their value went down raising inflation
civil constitution of the clergy july 1790
Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July, 1790)
  • Made RCC a department of state
  • Reflected anti-clerical feelings of revolutionaries
  • embittered relations between church and state
  • Pope Pius VI condemns both Civil Constitution of the Clergy and Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
  • Major Blunder: Created immense opposition w/in the RCC even from those who had favored revolution
counterrevolutionary activity
Counterrevolutionary Activity
  • émigrés – aristocrats who left France for bordering countries often to mount opposition to the revolution from outside
  • King Louis XVI attempts to flee France, but is caught
  • Declaration of Pillnitz – Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King FrederickWilliam II of Prussia announce that if another European power joins them they will intervene in France to protect the monarchy
the jacobins
The Jacobins
  • political club from Third Estate—wanted a republic, abolition of slavery, franchise for all adult males, adoption of the metric system, distribution of all land among peasants, and decree of law of the maximum (fixed prices on essentials and raised wages)
  • Got those that are underlined
  • Closely associated with the Reign of Terror
  • Girondists –Jacobins who assumed leadership of Assembly
    • declared war on Austria
    • imprisoned Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
the convention and sans culottes
The Convention and Sans-Culottes
  • September Massacres – 1,200 people murdered in prisons by Parisians
  • Convention – September 21, 1792 – Legislative Assembly calls for universal male suffrage and a republican government
  • sans-culottes
    • name comes from long trousers of working people
    • More radical than the Girondists
    • anti-monarchical, republican—people make decisions
  • Jacobins – began to cooperate with sans-culottes despite not having a problem with wealthy
  • execution of Louis XVI – beheaded on January 21, 1793
france at war with europe
France at War with Europe
  • Girondists at war with Great Britain, Holland, and Belgium
  • Every major European power was now hostile to the Revolution
edmund burke
Edmund Burke
  • Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) – said revolution will end in military despotism
  • American Revolution hero Thomas Paine disagreed with him
  • Other European nations agreed with Burke when France declared war on Austria
william pitt
William Pitt
  • Britain’s prime minister during Revolution
  • approved for acts suspending habeas corpus
  • certain ideas considered treasonable
the reign of terror
The Reign of Terror
  • A sense that the achievements of the revolution were in trouble by the wars
  • real and imagined enemies of revolution arrested and executed (peasants, nobles, clergy, business people and ex-revolutionary leaders)
  • Most famous and infamous period of the revolution
the republic defended
The Republic Defended
  • The Committee of Public Safety – carried out the duties of the executive branch in dictatorial fashion
    • Led by Robespierre
  • The levee en masse – led by Lazare Carnot, had military requisition on the entire population
    • agreed to ceiling on prices in accordance to the sans-culotte
    • carried out more executions
maximilien de robespierre
Maximilien de Robespierre
  • dominant figure of National Assembly and Committee of Public Safety
  • had support of sans-culotte
  • called for assault on all enemies of the Revolution
  • Republic of Virtue
repression of republican women
Repression of Republican Women
  • all women’s societies banned
  • barred from Convention
  • Olympe de Gouges executed
de christianization
  • new calendar adopted
  • churches destroyed
  • some clergy executed
revolutionary tribunals
Revolutionary Tribunals
  • executions
    • Marie Antoinette and royal family
    • Girondist politicians
    • peasants opposed to the Revolution
    • members of sans-culottes
  • executions carried out by guillotine, shootings and drownings
the end of the terror
The End of the Terror
  • Robespierre turns on both political left and right
  • Law of 22 Prairial – tribunal could convict suspects without evidence against them
  • fearing he was turning into a dictator, Robespierre and 80 of his supporters are executed
the thermidorian reaction 1794
The Thermidorian Reaction1794
  • influence of wealthy middle-class and professional people replaces sans-culottes
  • Committee of Public Safety diminished
  • Law of 22 Prairial repealed
  • many Jacobin leaders executed—began to destroy machinery of terror
  • traditional roles of men and women in addition to the church reestablished
  • Directory established to govern
constitution of year iii
Constitution of Year III
  • rejected both constitutional monarchy and democracy
  • Established a bicameral legislature and an executive branch
  • Political system based on rank and birthreplaced by system of civic equality social status based on property ownership
  • Replaced the sans-culottes
  • Peace treaties with Spain and Prussia
  • Directory weak due to
    • suppression of sans-culottes
    • Catholic royalist revival
    • wars
chronological order of events
Chronological Order of Events
  • National Assembly—1789-1791
  • Legislative Assembly—1791-1792
  • Convention—1792-1795
  • Directory—1795-1799
  • Consulate—1799-1804
  • Empire (Napoleon)—1804-1814