The Russian Revolution • War and Discontent • Nicholas II was an autocratic ruler • Russia not prepared for war • Influence of Rasputin • The March Revolution • Problems in Petrograd • March of the women, March 8, 1917 • Calls for a general strike • Soldiers join the marchers • Provisional Government takes control • Alexander Kerensky (1881-1970) • Tried to carry on the war • Soviets sprang up • Bolsheviks under the leadership of Vladimir Ulianov, 1870-1924 • Sent back to Russia in a sealed train by the Germans • “Peace, land and bread”
Russian Revolution (cont) • The Bolshevik Revolution • Bolsheviks control Petrograd and Moscow soviets • Collapse of Provisional Government, November 6-7, 1917 • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918 • Civil War • Bolshevik (Red) army and Anti-Bolshevik (White) army • Murder of the Tsar and his family (July 16, 1918) • Disunity among the white army • Communists and “War communism” • Invasion of allied troops • 19121: Communists victory
2. First Stages of Industrialization An Early Russian Factory
3. Weak Economy 1905 Russian Rubles
4. Extensive Foreign Investments & Influence Building the Trans-Siberian RR[Economic benefits only in a few regions.]
5. Russo-Japanese War [1904-1905] The “Yellow Peril”
Treaty of Portsmouth [NH] - 1905 President Theodore Roosevelt Acts as the Peacemaker [He gets the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.]
6. Unrest Among the Peasants & Urban Working Poor Father Georgi Gapon:Leader of the People OR Police Informer?
Bloody SundayJanuary 22, 1905 The Czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg
Russian Cossacks Slaughter The People in Odessa Anti-Jewish Attacks
1. The Tsar’s October Manifesto October 30, 1905
2. The Opening of the Duma:Possible Reforms? 1906 • The first two tries were too radical. • The third duma was elected by the richest people in Russia in 1907.
The Russian Constitution of 1906 • Known as the Fundamental Laws [April 23, 1906]. • The autocracy of the Russian Tsar was declared. • The Tsar was supreme over the law, the church, and the Duma. • It confirmed the basic human rights granted by the October Manifesto, BUT made them subordinate to the supremacy of the law.
The Russian Revolution Post 1905 Revolution of 1917
Our objectives are: You will be able to understand why the events of World War I hastened the outbreak of the Russian Revolution What was the ultimate fate of the Russian Royal Family—judge for yourself if they deserved their fate. In what ways did Lenin solve the erratic political situation that existed in Russia during the Revolution’s early months? You will be able to understand the deeper meaning of the slogan “PEACE, LAND, and BREAD.”
We have already learned that Marx published his Communist Manifesto in 1848.
Marx watched the events in Paris 1871 and the commune with interest. The commune in Paris did not succeed.
But the idea that revolution was needed to overthrow governments remained a key point of Marxist doctrine.
But Marxism found fertile ground in the Russian state. A country plagued by deep rooted societal, social and political difficulties.
Russia was ripe for revolution: • A previous history of oppression • A rising sense of Pan-Slavism: Russia has a unique destiny • Local conflicts across the vast Russian empire.
A brief review: • Alexander II freed the serfs. • Alexander was assassinated by the “Peoples Will” • His son, Alexander III is reactionary: drives revolutionaries and terrorists into exile.
We have already learned that war broke out in August 1914 after Russia mobilized to protect Serbian interest.
Peasants and ordinary workers were sent to fight the Germans. Terrible disasters at Tannenberg and the Mausaurian Lakes, in the first month of the war, destroyed the Russian soldier’s confidence…
The Germans moved deep into Russia territory, and by 1915, over 2 million Russian soldiers had been killed, wounded, or captured.
The Middle class offered support to the government. Business groups put factories into maximum production.
But life at court was bizarre…the Tsarina Alexandra relied on Rasputin to treat her hemophiliac son, Alexei.
All groups complained about the Tsar, the court, and while the nation was at war, the system seemed hopelessly “out of it.”
The Dumas reassembled in November 1916, and loudly protested conditions. The leader of the Dumas shouted out about the sinister influence of Rasputin.
In December 1916, Rasputin was assassinated by Prince Yssapov and others…