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Migrations: Why, Where, and the Impact of the Movement of Peoples
Reasons for Migration • Push Factors • Negative conditions at home • Real conditions • Perceived conditions • Impel the decision to migrate • Pull Factors • Positive attributes in destination • Real opportunities • Perceived opportunities • Pull the immigrant to move
Push Factors Not enough jobs Few opportunities "Primitive" conditions Political fear Not being able to practice religion Poor medical care Loss of wealth Natural disasters Death threats Slavery Pollution Poor housing Landlords Poor chances of finding courtship War conditions in area Pull Factors Job opportunities Better living conditions Political and/or religious freedom Enjoyment Education Better medical care Security Family links Better chances of finding courtship Get rich easily
Laws of Migration • Economic factors are main cause • Lose of job or job opportunities • Better pasture, farm land; more pay • Counter-migration • Every migration flow generates return migration • Many people go abroad to work, study temporarily • Majority of migrants move short distance • Urbanization is the most common • Moving for a job locally is another • Urbanization • Migrants moving long distances choose big-city destinations • In 19th, 20th century the number one fact of migration • Urban residents less migratory than rural residents • Cities offer too many opportunities and benefits • If one immigrates, one tends to go urban to urban not to rural • The youth migrate • Families less likely to make international moves than young adults • Rare to see whole family migration
Different Scales • Inter-continental migrations • African Slave Trades • Irish Diaspora • Indentured labor from Asia to Africa, Asia, Pacific • Intra-continental migrations • Indo-European Migration • Bantu Migrations • Hunnic Migrations • Peopling of Americas and Globe • Inter-regional migrations • Guest workers going to Europe • Illegal migrant workers to the USA • Rural to urban migration • Urbanization is an example • Local residential shifts • Suburbanization • Neighborhood relocations
Motives of Migration • Innovative move • Migrant undertakes new way of life • Willing to change life styles • Willing to give up old traditions • 19th c. immigration to Americas • Conservative move • Preserves accustomed way of life • Simply changes location • Puritan migration to New England • Malayo-Polynesian migration out of China
Types of Migration Home Community Movement from one place to another within their community Most common form of migration Distance measure in yards and miles Associated with youth leaving home, jobs, marriage Examples include matri- and patrilocal, as well as modern USA Colonization People leaves older community to establish a new one in another place Desire is to create an exact replica of an existing culture elsewhere Greek, Phoenician, Early Modern European colonization are examples Whole-Communityor Mass Migration An entire community migrates to a new land Often migration in response to environmental conditions Nomadic migration including seasonal migration for flocks Can also include mass migration to avoid war or forced migration Generally a low level of community development Examples include the Germanic Migration, Irish Diaspora Cross-Community Involves groups/individuals migrating to live within another community Such communities settle amongst others but do not assimilate Examples include migrant workers, students in foreign universities Picks up ideas, technology, skills spreading them back to mother country Often considered free migration to seek temporary job, education Examples include Jewish, Nestorian and Chinese immigration
Patterns of migration • Step migration • Series of small, less extreme locational changes • Bantu, Hunnic, Polynesian migration examples • People move to one location, stay for a while • For some reason, migrate again to another location • Chain migration • Established linkage or chain • From point of origin to destination • Former Migrants assist latest migrants • Chinese, Hindu labor migration of 19th, 20th centuries • Jewish, Armenian diasporas similar • Migration Fields • Areas that dominate a locale's in- and out-migration patterns
Limitations on Migration • Political restrictions • Many countries have restrictions • Some have entry quotas • Some have exit requirements • Geographical restrictions • Distance and transport • Physical barriers to movement • OpportunitiesofCosts • What do I gain, what do I lose • Personal characteristics
Genographic Project • DNA studies suggest • All humans come from group of African ancestors who began moving about 60,000 years ago • Project to chart new knowledge on migratory history of human species through 2010 • Led by National Geographic and IBM with cutting-edge genetic/computational technologies • Components of project • Gather field research data from indigenous and traditional peoples • Invite general public to join • Use proceeds to further field research and support indigenous conservation and revitalization projects • Project is anonymous, non-medical, non-political, non-profit and non-commercial and all results will be placed in public domain following scientific peer publication
How To Teach Migration • Assign Readings • Use classroom text and assign sections on migrations • Reinforce with readings from the College Board and Professional Sources including primary sources • Provide charts to organize information • Lecture • Teach the background of migration • Cover a few important examples of migration • Guided Practice • Work with students to compare/contrast migration • Independent Study • Assign students different migrations to research • Present study to class – students take notes
Migrations To Teach • Which ones to teach • Any migration mentioned in CB Guide • Why: many books do not do them justice • Examples • Spread of Pre-Historic Humans • Indo-European in Eurasia • Bantu Peoples in Africa • Later Steppe Peoples: Xiong-nu, Turks, Mongols • The Malayo-Polynesian Movements • Jewish Diaspora (totally left out of most books) • Germans and Vikings
Migrations To Research • Semitic Migrations: Hebrew, Arabs, etc. • Mediterranean Seafarers: Sea Peoples, Greeks, Phoenicians • The Celts • 9th Century Migrations: Arab, Viking, Magyar • The Slavic Migrations • DrangNachOsten: German Colonization of the Baltic • The Turks • The Pre-Historic Peopling of the Americas • Manifest Destinies: US to the West, Russians in Siberia, Boer Great Trek • Chinese Settlement of the Interior • Mfekane in Southern Africa • Relocations of the American Indians • European Colonization of the Americas • Chinese, Indian Debt Labor Movements of the 19th, 20th century • 19th, 20th century Immigration to the Americas
Pre-Historic MigrationOut of Africa: The Peopling of the World c. 2 million BCE To 15,000 BCE
Humans Spread Across Globe • Hominids • Arose in Africa 1-2 million years ago • Migrated throughout Eurasia • Homo-Sapiens • As a species arose c. 300,000 years ago • Arose in East Africa, The Horn of Africa • Hunter-Gatherer Society • Nomads followed game, gathered seeds • Conduits across Strait of Gibraltar, Sinai • Southwest Asia reached c. 70,000 BCE • East Asia reached c. 60,000 BCE • Australia reached c. 50,000 BCE • Europe reached c. 40,000 BCE • North America reached c. 20,000 BCE • South America reached c. 15,000 to c. 12,000 BCE • All Pacific Islands not reached until c. 1000 CE • Proof • We use DNA, genetic drift, chromosomes, archaeology as proof • We look at languages and linguistics
EARLYAFRICANMIGRATIONS Up and Down the Nile, Out from the Deserts
Late Paleolithic Africa • The Sahara as a Factor • Late Paleolithic Sahara • End of glacial period produced rain • Split Saharan into North, South • Northern Sahara • Was a desert • Largely uninhabited • Southern Sahara • Tropical monsoons much stronger • Tropical savannah, several very large lakes • During Early Neolithic Era • Zone stretched from Atlantic to Nile River • Domesticated animals with pastoral societies • Some plants, early agriculture along Nile • Megalithic architecture and rock art • Dramatic Climate Change • Drastic climate change • Southern Sahara began to dry up • People migrated out • By 3500 BCE had become a large impassable barrier • Migration Routes • South towards West Africa • Southeast towards Central Africa • East towards Nile River
North & Northwest Africa • Paleolithic Peoples • Afro-Asiatic • Caucasian “race” • Two major sub-groups • Semitic, Hamitic • Locations • Along Southern Mediterranean • Down Red Sea to Ethiopia • Also in Horn of Africa • “Hamitic” • Berbers and Tuaregs • Ancient • Libyans • Mauretanians • Numidians • Garamantes • Egyptians • Cushitic (Kush-Meroe) • Oromo, Amhara, Tigreans (Ethiopians) • Somali • Migrations During Historical Period • Largely Semitic • Arabs from Arabia • Probably also Hyksos • Jews from Fertile Crescent • Axumites from Southern Arabian mixed with Cushites • Made possible by introduction of horses, camels into Africa
Migrations along Nile • Lower Nile • Prehistoric migrations • Egyptians (Afro-Asiatic) from North up the Nile • Proto-Kushite (Negroid) from South up the Nile • Berber, Nilotic pastoral nomads from Deserts towards Nile • Historic Egypt controlled Upper and Lower Nile • Old, Middle Kingdoms united Upper, Lower Egypt • No distinction in early Egyptian history between different peoples • Separate Paths • The Semitic Hyksos created the division, separation • 1720 BCE overran Egypt, severing contact with Kush • Separate Black Egyptian state, culture developed at Kermah • New Kingdom re-incorporated area in empire • By 1200 BCE New Kingdom lost control of Kush • Egyptians lost control of region for 500 years • Upper Nile • Early Kushites • Called Nubians and Kushites by Egyptians • Saharan-Nilotic peoples indigenous to Upper Nile for 10,000 years • Totally immersed in Egyptian culture; Kushite language disappeared • But had moon worship, a Nilo-Saharan cultural trait • Powerful, militaristic Kush State • Around 750 BCE conquered Egypt: capital around Napata • Withdrew from Egypt in face of Assyrian invasions • New Kushite state moved capital to Meroe • Tributary to Persians, Greeks, Romans • Nomadic Nobatae, Nuba, Beja moved into state forming military aristocracy • Romans used state to counterbalance movement of Ethiopians towards Nile • 350 CE: Axumites conquer Kush, destroy state • Separate Nubian states arise, convert to Christianity
Migrations in the Horn • Many Unknowns • Earliest people • Afro-Asiatic people called Cushites • Nearest Relatives: Egyptians, Berbers • Distant Relatives: Arabs, Jews, Sabeans • Skin color is a light to dark reddish brown • Modern Descendents • Ethiopians, Tigreans, Amhara • Somali, Oromo • Eritreans • Nilo-Saharans • Migrated into the area very early and settled early along Nile • Also migrated toward Ethiopian highlands • Kush-Meroe, Nubians were black Nilo-Saharans • Color of skin much darker, black • Intermarried with Cushites pushing down from highlands • Language, Haplogroup are best guides not race, skin color • Contain both Semitic, Nilo-Saharan words • Axumite Geez related to Southern Arabian Script • Merotic writing related to Egyptian demotic, hieratic • Haplogroup of E1b1b is predominant among Afro-Asiatics • Differences come later with Christianity, Islam • Where did Axum come from? • Some historians feel Southern Arabians founded Axum • Recent evidence indicates an indigenous development • But no question Yemenite Arabs, Jews had influence • And intermarriage with Nilotics is genetically evident • Genome: 62% Caucasian, 24% Sub-Saharan, 8% Austro-Melanesian, 6% East Asian!
Human Migration in Classical Africa AncientandClassicalMovements In Africa Cattle Migration In Africa
Early Desert Trade • Early Trade • Ancient Egypt • Trade up and down Nile • Gold, spices, animals, wheat, slaves • Desert Routes • Dar el-Arbain from desert along river • Ghadames: Niger (Gao) north to Tripoli • Garamantean: Central Sahara across Haggar Mts. • Walata Road: From Senegal along Atlas to Morocco • The Garamantes • Both Greeks, Phoenicians record their presence c. 500 BCE • A Berber Saharan tribe, pastoral nomads • Developed a thriving trading state until 5th century CE • Developed extensive irrigation system • Controlled trade between Sahara, Mediterranean Coast • Constant conflict constantly with Romans • Increasing desertification destroyed their land, dried up water • The Camel • Introduced by Romans c. 200 CE to patrol desert borders • Berbers acquired camels, used for deep desert trade • Camels made travel across desert possible
Historical Colonial Movements of Peoples “The Government Would Like You To Move to This New Place”
What is colonization? • Definition • Extension of sovereign control over neighboring territory • Colonialism: The physical settlement of your people abroad • Imperialism: Control land to exploit resources but no settlement • National populations resettled onto conquered lands • Indigenous populations displaced, assimilated, eliminated • Local labor resources controlled, markets exploited • New socio-economic, linguistic, religious, culture introduced • Types • Settler Colonies – Some Examples • Phoencians, Greeks, and Romans • Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and Ottomans • Malayo-Polynesians • Bantu and Berbers in Africa • Chinese in Western lands, Germans in Eastern lands • English in Ireland • Dependencies • Lands under control of a foreign state but not settled by its people
Phoenicians & Carthaginians • Original Home of Phoenicians c. 1000 BCE • Coast of Eastern Mediterranean near Lebanon • Mountainous area with little arable soil • Interior controlled by powerful states • Cities arose on the coast oriented outward • Movement • Trade began to obtain needed materials • Sufficient trees provide materials to build boats • Phoenicians became sailors and maritime experts • Acquire raw materials and make finished goods for trade • Famous for cloth, purple dye, metallurgy • Overpopulation • Excess population immigrates to establish new settlements • Phoenicians settle Cyprus, southern coasts of Western Mediterranean • Rivalry with Greeks for Mediterranean Sea, trade, settlement • Carthaginian Empire, c. 600 to 200 BCE • Arose as original homeland fell under various empires • Settles Western Sicily, Sardinia, Baleric Islands, Southern Spain • Exploits rich crop lands for wine, olives • Discovers rich silver vines, ships trade for tin with southern England • Battled Etrsucans, Kelts, Greeks and Romans for Western Mediterranean • Conquered by Rome
As Greeks • Minoans and Mycenaean • Maritime Civilization arose on Crete • New archaeological evidence indicates Indo-Iranian origins • Established colonies throughout Aegean Sea • Traded with Phoenicians and Egyptians • Land-Based Mycenaeans • Bronze Age Indo-Europeans migrated into Peloponnesus • Contemporaneous to Minoans with whom traded, warred • Many settlements in Aegean Islands, Asia Minor • Dark Age Migrations of the Greeks • c. 1000 BCE new tribes (Dorians) pushed into region • Followed later by Attics, Aeolians, Achaeans, others • Established numerous independent city-states • Early Greece 750 BCE • Greece stabilized and population began to grow • Land could not support excess population • Greeks began tradition of sending excess populations to sister colonies • Many of these colonies achieved independence, rose to prominence • Spread culture, crops, religion, traditions, language across Mediterranean
Greek Thassalocracies • Maritime Poleis • Several poleis established many overseas dependencies • Sister colonies retained strong connections to mother polis • Included Athens, Corinth, Megara, Phocea • Classical Greece was geographically wide-spread • Greece Proper and islands of the Aegean including Asia Minor, Cyprus • Eastern Sicily and Southern Italian coasts, harbors • Ports, settlements along all coasts of the Black Sea • Ports, harbors, islands in Spain, France, Northern Italy, Libya • Larger Thassalocracies • Athenian Empire came to dominate Aegean, Black Seas • Arose after war with Persia • Delian League against Persia forcibly turned into an Athenian Empire • Athens controlled Dardanelles, most islands of Aegean • Corinth was a major rival of Athens in Ionian, Adriatic Seas • Syracuse (Sicily) rose to power and controlled much of Southern Italy • Result: Greeks settled throughout Mediterranean, neighboring seas
The Hellenistic World • Alexander’s World • He founds Greek cities as his armies advance • Greek administrators, soldiers, merchants migrate in wake • Greek ruled states arose within his failed empire • Successor Hellenistic Monarchies • Greek cities throughout their states • Greek predominate language of area • Greeks formed elite settler society
From Etruscans to Romans • The Etruscans • Elite aristocracy migrated from Asia Minor • Established city-states thoughout Tuscany • Etruscan colonies on Corsica, Sardinia, Po Valley, Campana • Roman Republic to Roman Empire • 753 – 509 BCE: Etruscan Kingdom – Rome founded as Etruscan colony • Roman patricians overthrow Etruscans, establish republic, expand • Rome expanded to control Latium, other Latin tribes, later Italy • Extended Roman rights to many conquered peoples • “Coloniae civium Romanorum” • Settled Roman with full rights, citizenship; acted as governors of territories • Tended to be small with 300 Roman families • Latin Colonies • Settlements of Romans, Latin allies in colonies with partial rights • Military colonies designed to control, maintain empire • After 133 BCE • New Roman colonies are transplantations of poor, landless Roman population • Settled as agricultural colonies to give poor, ex-farmers new land • Often settled in territories outside of Italy • Imperial colonies • Tradition started by Julius Caesar and continued by later emperors • Legionnaires paid off upon retirement by establishing colonies in empire
Roman Colonia First Roman Colonies Colonia spread Latin culture, language and were usually located at critical geographic sites that later became major cities.
The Vandal Migration • The Volkerwanderung 400 CE • Entered Roman territory • Many embraced Christianity • Few were Roman Catholics • Most followed Arian Christianity • Crossed into Gaul • Battled the Franks, forced Vandals to move into Iberia • Crossed into region as Roman feoderati • Settled Galicia, Western, Southern areas • Into Africa • Crossed Strait of Gibraltar to use it as a base • 439 CE conquered Carthage, made it capital • Settled area around modern Tunis, Eastern Algeria • Conquered Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica; sacked Rome 455 • Created a powerful state • Later State • Suffered conflicts between Catholics, Arians • Byzantines invaded, conquered area in 534
THE BANTU MIGRATIONS Out of Nigeria, Movement in the South
The Early Bantus The Bantu peoples Originated in the region around modern Nigeria/Cameroon Influenced by Nok iron making, herding, agriculture Population pressure drove migrations, 2000 BCE – 700 BCE Two major movements: to south and to east and then south Languages split into about 500 distinct but related tongues Bantu agriculture and herding Early Bantu relied on agriculture – slash-burn, shifting Pastoralists, semi-nomadic due to agriculture, cattle Iron metallurgy Iron appeared during the 7th and 6th centuries B.C.E. Iron made agriculture more productive Expanded divisions of labor, specialization in societies Population Pressures Iron technologies produced population upsurge Large populations forced migration of Bantu
Movement Spreads Other Items • The Bantu Migration • Population pressure led to migration, c. 2000 B.C.E. • Movement to South, along Southeast and Southwest coasts • Languages differentiated into about 500 distinct but related tongues • Occupied most of sub-Saharan (except West) Africa by 1000 C.E. • Split into groups as they migrated: Eastern, Central, Southern • Bantu spread iron, herding technologies as they moved • Bananas • Between 300/500 C.E., Malay seafarers reached Africa • Settled in Madagascar, visited East African coast • Brought with them pigs, taro, and banana cultivation • Bananas became well-established in Africa by 500 C.E. • Bantu learned to cultivate bananas from Malagasy • Bananas caused second population spurt, migration surge • Reached South Africa in 16th century CE