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3 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING 4 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING - MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE (FAST TWITCH) 7 - ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING - ATP 8 - ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING - NEURAL ADAPTIVE RESPONSE

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INDEX


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    1. 3 -ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING 4 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING - MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE (FAST TWITCH) 7 - ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING - ATP 8 -ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING - NEURAL ADAPTIVE RESPONSE 9 - ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING - RECIPROCAL INNERVATION 11 - ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING - CONNECTIVE TISSUE RESPONSE 12 - ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING - INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE 13 - BODY COMPOSITION 14 - BODY COMPOSITION - CHANGES DUE TO STRENGTH TRAINING, FEMALES 15 - ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING 16 - CELLULAR ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING - MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE 17 - CELLULAR ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING - NEURAL RESPONSE 18 - CELLULAR ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING 19 - LONG-TERM EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 20 - CARDIAC ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY TRAINING 22 - CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY 25 - VASCULAR RESPONSES PRODUCED BY TRAINING 27 - EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 28 - AEROBIC CAPACITY - RESPIRATORY RESPONSE INDEX

    2. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING

    3. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE (FAST TWITCH FIBRES) HYPERTROPHY • muscle hypertrophy (of fast twitch fibres) increases cross sectional area of existing fibres by increasing: • number of myofibrils within each muscle cell • sarcoplasmic volume • contractile proteins: actin and myosin filaments • mass of fast twitch fibres

    4. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE (FAST TWITCH FIBRES) HYPERPLASIA • hyperplasia means that the number of fast twitch fibres increases • by splitting of muscle fibres (splitting length-ways) • caused by intense exercise as in heavy weight training or plyometrics • hence % of type II increases and % of type I decreases

    5. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE (FAST TWITCH FIBRES) • increase in muscle cell stores such as ATP, PC, and glycogen • increase in anaerobic enzymes • increase toleration of lactate in fast twitch fibres • improved ability to remove lactate from muscle cell into blood • therefore enhancement of alactic/lactate and lactate/aerobic thresholds-delay in OBLA • hence improved capacities of alactic and lactic acid systems to resynthesise ATP • and ability to maintain maximal power output for longer • decrease in DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness) particularly following eccentric training

    6. ATP increases in stores of ATP and PC and amounts of anaerobic enzymes the ATP-PC system provides energy for slightly longer which means that when exercise is taken at maximum effort eventually there will be a delay in the ATP-PC to lactic threshold ADAPTATIONS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING

    7. NEURAL ADAPTIVE RESPONSE increased rate of response of CNS (Central Nervous System) recruitment of additional fast twitch fibre motor units improved coordination of fast twitch fibre motor units toughening of proprioceptors so that more force is required to stimulate inhibitory signals sensory organs such as Golgi tendons (see section B3) become less sensitive which allows large muscle forces to develop in a given muscle which in an untrained person could cause injury hence increased strength and increase in rate of force production ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING

    8. NEURAL ADAPTIVE RESPONSE RECIPROCAL INNERVATION this occurs as an antagonist muscle is activated less during a movement the antagonist action is reduced without conscious effort as a sportsperson performs a powerful movement (using agonists as prime movers) this leads to a small increase in strength of the performer in learned and specific movements ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING

    9. NEURAL ADAPTIVE RESPONSE early strength gains during periods of strength training (between 6 months and 2 years depending on exercise intensity) are almost all due to increased neural activation long-term strength gains are mostly due to muscle hypertrophy Wikimedia commons/Photo by: LocalFitness.com.au ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING

    10. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING CONNECTIVE TISSUE RESPONSE • increase in thickness and strength of tendons • increased flexibility of ligaments • thickening and improved elasticity of cartilage • improved capability of cartilaginous tissue to absorb and expel synovial fluid • hence improved cushioning against impact within a joint • strengthening of bone tissue due to increased depositing of calcium • therefore reduced risk of injury • and reduced risk of osteoporosis in older people

    11. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE • adaptive response depends on individual • fitness • cultural differences • gender • psychological factors • maturation SWEATING • improved ability to sweat • more efficient heat loss • REGRESSION • when training stops, adaptive responses cease • the longer the training the more stable the adaptation

    12. Istockphoto Ron Summers/Damir Spanic BODY COMPOSITION BODY COMPOSITION CHANGES DUE TO STRENGTH TRAINING • anaerobic training can result in: • loss or increase in total body mass (depending on the training regime used and whether male or female) • loss of fat mass • losses in relative fat • gains in fat free mass (FFM)

    13. Helen Roscoe Photography BODY COMPOSITION BODY COMPOSITION CHANGES DUE TO STRENGTH TRAINING • females gain much less in FFM than males due to hormonal differences: • presence of testosterone in males causes androgenic effect • the building of muscle mass in males • the amount of change of body mass depends on total energy expenditure

    14. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY STRENGTH TRAINING AFTER SEVERAL WEEKS OF STRENGTH (ANAEROBIC) TRAINING MUSCLE CELL BEFORE TRAINING ATP PC glycogen glycolytic enzymes lactic acid ATP PC glycogen glycolytic enzymes lactic acid = SLOW TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRE (type I) (starts small gets smaller) =FAST TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRE (type II) (starts big gets bigger)

    15. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING MUSCLE CELL RESPONSE • more myoglobin is created in muscle cells • more and bigger mitochondriain muscle cells • increased oxidative enzymes • hence increased activity of Kreb’s cycle and electron transport chain • and increase in utilisation of fat • increase in stores of glycogen in muscle • which enables more fuel to be available for aerobic work • conversion of type IIb to type IIa fibres

    16. ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING NEURAL RESPONSE • betterrecruitment of slow twitch fibre motor units making muscle usage more efficient

    17. CELLULAR ADAPTATION PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING AFTER SEVERAL WEEKS OF AEROBIC TRAINING BEFORE TRAINING glycogen fats oxygen uptake glycogen fats oxygen uptake = SLOW TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRE (type I) =FAST TWITCH MUSCLE FIBRE (type II) (do not increase in size)

    18. LONG-TERM EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    19. CARDIAC ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY TRAINING ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING CARDIAC RESPONSE • blood plasma volume increases with training • therefore increased blood plasma volume enters left ventricle • increasing the stretch of the ventricular walls by the Frank-Starling mechanism

    20. CARDIAC ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY TRAINING ADAPTATIONS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC TRAINING CARDIAC RESPONSE • cardiac hypertrophy – heart becomes bigger and stronger (mainly left ventricle) • increased ventricular muscle mass and stronger elastic recoil of the myocardium • causes a more forceful contraction during ventricular systole • therefore stroke volume increases and HR decreases (bradycardia) • and hence providing more oxygen per pulse • the net effect is up to 20% bigger stroke volume and greater oxygen delivery to muscles

    21. REGULAR AEROBIC TRAINING results in hypertrophy of the cardiac muscle, meaning that the muscle becomes larger and stronger this means that the heart pumps a larger volume of blood out per beat, hence the stroke volume is larger this is termed bradycardia and has the consequence of producing a resting HR below 60 bpm CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY

    22. REGULAR AEROBIC TRAINING at rest, a bigger stronger heart pumps more blood out per beat, even though the body’s requirement for oxygenated blood would be approximately the same as for an untrained person hence resting heart rate decreases, with the net effect of an unchanged cardiac output highly trained sportspeople tend to have resting heart rates of well below 60 bpm CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY

    23. REGULAR AEROBIC TRAINING during maximum exercise, an increase in heart rate, coupled with an increase in stroke volume results in an increase in cardiac output as expected, cardiac output for the endurance athlete is more than double that of the untrained person due to cardiac muscle hypertrophy CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY BLOOD VESSELS IN THE HEART • blood flow to heart decreases because heart muscle is more efficient • hence decrease in resting HR

    24. VASCULAR RESPONSES PRODUCED BY TRAINING VASCULAR RESPONSE • more haemoglobin is created and is available in blood for oxygen transport • the capillary system in a trained muscle bed is utilised better and developed • there is increased capillarisation of trained muscle • and improved dilation of existing capillaries due to increased blood volume • hence increase in a-vO2 diff

    25. VASCULAR RESPONSES PRODUCED BY TRAINING VASCULAR RESPONSE • increased elasticity and thickness of smooth muscle of arterial walls • makes walls tougher and therefore less likely to stretch under pressure • hence a more effective blood distribution • this maintains the blood pressure which forces blood through the capillary network

    26. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    27. AEROBIC CAPACITY TRAINING EFFECTS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC ACTIVITY RESPIRATORY RESPONSE • musculature of the torso becomes stronger and more efficient • lung volumes increase slightly, greater volumes of air can be breathed per breath • increase in VC at the expense of RV • hence decrease in breathing rate (f) at submaximal workloads • and increase in breathing rate (f) at maximal workloads • hence large increase in volume of air breathed per minute (VE)

    28. AEROBIC CAPACITY TRAINING EFFECTS PRODUCED BY AEROBIC ACTIVITY RESPIRATORY RESPONSE • increase in pulmonary blood flow and plasma volume • efficiency of alveoliimproves, and more alveoli are utilised • hence increased gaseous exchange and VO2max • during maximal workloads there is a big increase in breathing rate (f) • hence much bigger values of minute ventilation (VE) are achieved