Index: 1:Marine Life 2: Interesting Coral Dwelling Species 3: Interesting Coral Species 4: Threats 5:Prevention of damage
Marine Life • Fewer than 1000 coral building species in existence • 35,000 to 65,000 coral dwelling species have been described • Believed to be between 1 to 9 million coral dwelling species in existence
Interesting Fish Species Two species that we all know about are the Clownfish and the Regal Tang. This is mostly due to their role in Finding Nemo as Nemo and Dory. Clownfish: Regal Tang: • Found in the Pacific ocean and Indian Oceans, Northwest Australia (Great Barrier Reef), Southeast Asia, Japan, and the Indo/Malaysia area. • Diet consists of the leftovers of fish on algae, and anemone • Can grow from 2 to 5 inches in length. • Live in captivity 3 to 5 years and in the wild 6 to 10 years. • Found in reefs in East Africa, Japan, Samoa, New Caledonia, and of course, the Great Barrier Reef. • Diet consists of plankton and algae. • Can grow to about 10 inches in length. • Live in schools that range from 10 to 12 of their species.
Humphead Wrasse • One of the largest Coral living fish, can grow to over six and a half feet long. Typically only reach about three feet in length though. • Can live for over thirty years. • Found in the red Sea, African Coast, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. • Diet consists of mollusks and other invertebrates. • Some change there sex later on in life after growing larger and older.
“Frog Fish” • Small fish, generally around 4-8 inches. • Use “spines” on there body's to attract and lure in prey. • Walk on there fins instead of swimming • Able to change there color to match surrounding areas. • Diet consists of small fish, shrimp, and crabs.
Coral Catshark • Can grow to two feet in length. • Feed on invertebrates and other small fish. • Found in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans, Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Philippines, New Guinea, Southern China and Japan. Also found in Australia at the Great Barrier Reef.
Interesting Coral Species Favia Corals • Often referred to as the brain coral because of its brain-like appearance. • Can sting other corals and animals if needed. • Receives some nutrients through photosynthesis • Filter feeding coral, meaning it “strains” of sucks and filters out food from surrounding water.
Catalaphyllia Coral Species • Often referred to as elegance coral • Lives up to 130 ft. below the surface. • Can reach 12” long by 8” wide • Eat Planktonic organisms, food particles, and dissolved organic organisms
Mushroom Corals • Located in the Indian and the Pacific Oceans. • As typical for most corals these corals can be many colors. • They are listed under a vulnerable speciesunder the endangered species list. • Shrimp use the tentacles of the certain corals in this group to hide from predators.
Threats to Coral Reefs and Coral Dwelling Species The obvious major threat to coral reefs is humans, this is through many ways. Ocean acidification is the process of co2 absorbing into the oceans and water areas. Over 1/3 of the co2 released from humans has been absorbed into the ocean. This equates to over 525 billion tons of co2. As the co2 reacts with seawater it depletes the carbon Ions which play an important role in shell formation. This makes it harder for corals to survive as long as the coral dwelling species that rely on the corals.
Threats to Coral Reefs and Coral Dwelling Species Another reductions due to humans is urbanization. In many cases people have built peers and structures directly over these reefs, killing them. Destructive fishing practices also have been killing off corals, things such as cyanide fishing, where you squirt cyanide on fish and corals, which stun them and make them easier to catch. This kills off corals and the fish that live there. Blast fishing, where they use explosives to kill the fish, is a mass destructor of corals and the environment around there.
Threats to Coral Reefs and Coral Dwelling Species Coral mining is a practice where people mine corals for use in bricks, road fill, and other things. This is destructive because it is removing coral in mass from already vulnerable reefs. Construction along reefs as well as mining, and farming lead to erosion releasing particles into the ocean which blankets the corals in a layer of sediments, killing and destroying the reefs.
Threats to Coral Reefs and Coral Dwelling Species Water pollution is another major threat to coral reefs and coral dwelling species. Gas, Oil, Pesticides, and other dangerous materials are being released into the oceans and water ways killing off lots of marine life, not only reef species. When these chemicals reach reefs it causes an increase in nitrogen, making lots of more algae grow which smothers the reefs and ultimately kills them.
Prevention All of the dangers listed above are among the many dangers to coral reefs. If life continues as it is we will no longer have coral reefs. The things above can be prevented. This is through education. If people learned and knew about these things, they would no longer do them. We need to take a stand to help protect these reefs otherwise they may be eradicated.