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CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE?. CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE?. Oceans/Continents. CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE?. Oceans/Continents Surplus/Deficit Energy.

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slide1

CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER

TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL

CLIMATE?

slide2

CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER

TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL

CLIMATE?

Oceans/Continents

slide3

CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER

TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL

CLIMATE?

Oceans/Continents

Surplus/Deficit Energy

slide4

CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER

TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL

CLIMATE?

Oceans/Continents

Surplus/Deficit Energy

Global Pressure Belts

slide5

CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER

TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL

CLIMATE?

Oceans/Continents

Surplus/Deficit Energy

Global Pressure Belts

Pressure Gradients

slide6

CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER

TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL

CLIMATE?

Oceans/Continents

Surplus/Deficit Energy

Global Pressure Belts

Pressure Gradients

Coriolis Effect

slide7

CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER

TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL

CLIMATE?

Oceans/Continents

Surplus/Deficit Energy

Global Pressure Belts

Pressure Gradients

Coriolis Effect

Wind Direction

slide8

90°N

OCEAN

CONTINENT

CONTINENT

90°S

slide9

90°N

45° -

60°N

30°N

30°S

45° -

60°S

90°S

slide10

90°N

SURPLUS/

DEFICIT

45° -

60°N

35°N

30°N

Surplus

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

90°S

slide11

90°N

SURPLUS/

DEFICIT

Deficit

45° -

60°N

35°N

30°N

Surplus

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

Deficit

90°S

slide12

90°N

PRESSURE

BELTS

Deficit

45° -

60°N

35°N

30°N

Surplus

?

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

Deficit

90°S

slide13

90°N

PRESSURE

BELTS

Deficit

45° -

60°N

35°N

?

30°N

Surplus

LOW

?

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

Deficit

90°S

slide14

PRESSURE

BELTS

90°N

Deficit

?

45° -

60°N

35°N

30°N

HIGH

Surplus

LOW

HIGH

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

?

Deficit

90°S

slide15

?

90°N

PRESSURE

BELTS

Deficit

45° -

60°N

LOW

35°N

30°N

HIGH

Surplus

LOW

HIGH

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

Deficit

?

90°S

slide16

HIGH

90°N

Deficit

45° -

60°N

LOW

35°N

30°N

HIGH

Surplus

LOW

HIGH

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

Deficit

90°S

HIGH

slide17

90°N

OCEAN/

LAND

Deficit

45° -

60°N

35°N

30°N

Surplus

?

?

?

LOW

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

Deficit

90°S

slide18

90°N

OCEAN/

LAND

Deficit

45° -

60°N

35°N

?

?

?

30°N

HIGH

Surplus

LOW

LOW

LOW

?

?

?

HIGH

30°S

35°S

45° -

60°S

Deficit

90°S

slide19

90°N

OCEAN/

LAND

Deficit

?

?

45° -

60°N

?

LOW

35°N

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

Surplus

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

35°S

45° -

60°S

?

?

LOW

?

Deficit

90°S

slide20

?

?

?

90°N

OCEAN/

LAND

Deficit

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

35°N

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

Surplus

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

35°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

Deficit

?

?

?

90°S

slide21

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

OCEAN/

LAND

Deficit

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

35°N

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

Surplus

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

35°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

Deficit

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

pressure gradient
Pressure Gradient

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

slide23

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

PRESSURE

GRADIENT

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide24

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

CORIOLIS

EFFECT

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide25

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

Northern

Sub-Tropical

Anticyclone

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide26

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

PRESSURE

GRADIENT

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide27

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

CORIOLIS

EFFECT

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide28

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

Southern

Sub-Tropical

Anticyclone

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide29

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

PRESSURE

GRADIENT

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide30

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

CORIOLIS

EFFECT

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide31

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide32

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

PRESSURE

GRADIENT

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide33

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

CORIOLIS

EFFECT

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

45° -

60°S

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide34

90°N

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

Winds blowing represent the advection of energy in the form of Sensible Heat from the zone of Surplus to the zone of Deficit.

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

LOW

45° -

60°N

35°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

HIGH

HIGH

35°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

HIGH

90°S

slide35

90°N

Winds blowing consistently in

one direction exert friction on the surface of the oceans and move waters in the same direction.

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

slide36

90°N

Winds blowing from a position closer to the equator towards one further from the equator transfer warmer water (+ ground heat flux towards the poles.

Warm Surface Ocean Currents

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

slide37

90°N

Winds blowing from a position closer to the equator towards one further from the equator transfer warmer water (+ ground heat flux) towards the poles.

Warm Surface Ocean Currents

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

slide38

90°N

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

Winds blowing from a position closer to the poles towards one closer to the equator transfer cool water ( - ground heat flux) towards the equator.

Cold Surface Ocean Currents

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

slide39

90°N

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

Winds blowing from a position closer to the poles towards one closer to the equator transfer cool water ( - ground heat flux) towards the equator.

Cold Surface Ocean Currents

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

slide40

90°N

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

East Coast of continents 20-40°

Warm Surface Ocean Currents

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

slide41

90°N

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

West Coast of continents 20-40°

Cold Surface Ocean Currents

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

slide42

90°N

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

East Coast of continents 50-70°

Cold Surface Ocean Currents

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

slide43

90°N

HIGH

LOW

45° -

60°N

HIGH

30°N

West Coast of continents 50-70°

Warm Surface Ocean Currents

HIGH

HIGH

30°S

45° -

60°S

LOW

HIGH

LOW

90°S

atlantic
ATLANTIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Europe

North

America

23.5°

Africa

South

America

23.5°

Antarctica

atlantic1
ATLANTIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Gulf

Stream

Canary

Current

23.5°

slide47

Fig. 1 Distribution of plastic marine debris collected in 6136 surface plankton net tows on annually repeated cruise tracks from 1986 to 2008 in the western North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea

K. L. Law et al., Science 329, 1185-1188 (2010)

Published by AAAS

slide48

Fig. 2 Average plastic concentration (color shading, units of pieces km-2) computed in 0.5{degrees} bins and smoothed with a 700-km width Gaussian filter

K. L. Law et al., Science 329, 1185-1188 (2010)

Published by AAAS

atlantic2
ATLANTIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Gulf

Stream

Canary

Current

Brazilian

Current

Benguela

Current

atlantic3
ATLANTIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Labrador/

Greenland

Current

North Atlantic

Drift

Gulf

Stream

Canary

Current

Brazilian

Current

Benguela

Current

atlantic4
ATLANTIC

WEST

COAST

EAST

COAST

Labrador/

Greenland

Current

North Atlantic

Drift

Gulf

Stream

Canary

Current

Brazilian

Current

Benguela

Current

At these latitudes there is no continent to contrast so winds circle globe

West Wind Drift

pacific
PACIFIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Asia

North

America

South

America

Australia

Antarctica

pacific1
PACIFIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Kuroshio

Current

California

Current

pacific2
PACIFIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Kuroshio

Current

California

Current

East Australian

Current

Chile/Peru

Humbolt

Current

pacific3
PACIFIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Bering

Current

Alaskan

Current

Kuroshio

Current

California

Current

East Australian

Current

Chile/Peru

Humbolt

Current

pacific4
PACIFIC

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Bering

Current

Alaskan

Current

Kuroshio

Current

California

Current

East Australian

Current

Chile/Peru

Humbolt

Current

West Wind Drift

indian
INDIAN

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Asia

Africa

Australia

Antarctica

indian1
INDIAN

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Agulhas/ Mozambique

Current

Western

Australian

Current

indian2
INDIAN

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Agulhas/ Mozambique

Current

Western

Australian

Current

West Wind Drift

indian3
INDIAN

EAST

COAST

WEST

COAST

Too small an ocean basin north of the Equator to establish pattern. Currents driven by seasonal winds

Agulhas/ Mozambique

Current

Western

Australian

Current

West Wind Drift

antarctic southern ocean
ANTARCTIC/SOUTHERN OCEAN

South

America

Africa

Australia

H

H

H

Antarctica

antarctic southern ocean1
ANTARCTIC/SOUTHERN OCEAN

Southern Sub-tropical Anticyclones

H

H

H

antarctic southern ocean2
ANTARCTIC/SOUTHERN OCEAN

Southern Sub-tropical Anticyclones

H

H

H

L

L

L

L

Mid-Latitude Lows

antarctic southern ocean3
ANTARCTIC/SOUTHERN OCEAN

Southern Sub-tropical Anticylcones

H

H

H

L

L

L

L

West Wind

Drift

Mid-Latitude Lows

slide68

Paradox lost.Shifting winds and corresponding ocean changes explain a seeming contradiction: the Antarctic Peninsula and Amundsen Sea growing warmer even as the continent's interior keeps its cool.

J Qiu Science 2012;338:879-881

Published by AAAS

slide69

Ozone is a greenhouse gas. Recent losses of ozone over Antarctica, may be cooling parts of the continent, thereby increasing High pressure.

H

J Qiu Science 2012;338:879-881

Published by AAAS

slide70

Potential global warming in the rest of the world appears to be pushing the position of the circumpolar winds poleward

H

J Qiu Science 2012;338:879-881

Published by AAAS

slide71

This has increased the pressure gradient, intensified winds and enhanced the circumpolar vortex.

H

J Qiu Science 2012;338:879-881

Published by AAAS

slide72

Antarctic Peninsula showing signs of accelerated melting

H

J Qiu Science 2012;338:879-881

Published by AAAS