Managing in the Global Environment. chapter six. Learning Objectives. Explain why the ability to perceive, interpret, and respond appropriately to the global environment is crucial for managerial success Differentiate between the global task and global general environments
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Managing in the Global Environment chapter six
Learning Objectives • Explain why the ability to perceive, interpret, and respond appropriately to the global environment is crucial for managerial success • Differentiate between the global task and global general environments • Identify the main forces in both the global task and general environments, and describe the challenges that each force presents to managers
Learning Objectives (cont.) Explain why the global environment is becoming more open and competitive and identify the forces behind the process of globalization that increases the opportunities, complexities, challenges, and threats that managers face Discuss why national cultures differ and why it is important that managers be sensitive to the effects of falling trade barriers and regional trade associations on the political and social systems of nations around the world
Global Organizations • Global Organizations • Organizations that operate and compete not only domestically, but also globally • Uncertain and unpredictable
What Is the Global Environment? • Global Environment • Set of forces and conditions in the world outside the organization’s boundaries that affect the way it operates and shape its behavior • Changes over time • Presents managers with opportunities and threats
Forces in the Global Environment Figure 6.1
What Is the Global Environment? • Task Environment • Set of forces and conditions that originate with suppliers, distributors, customers, and competitors • Affects an organization’s ability to obtain inputs and dispose of its outputs • Most immediate and direct effect on managers
What Is the Global Environment? • General environment • The wide-ranging global, economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political, and legal forces that affect an organization and its task environment.
The Task Environment • Suppliers • Individuals and organizations that provide an organization with the input resources that it needs to produce goods and services • Raw materials, component parts, labor (employees)
Global Outsourcing • Global Outsourcing • The purchase or production of inputs or final products from overseas suppliers to lower costs and improve product quality or design.
The Task Environment • Distributors • Organizations that help other organizations sell their goods or services to customers • Powerful distributors can limit access to markets through its control of customers in those markets. • Managers can counter the effects of distributors by seeking alternative distribution channels.
The Task Environment • Customers • Individuals and groups that buy goods and services that an organization produces • Identifying an organization’s main customers and producing the goods and services they want is crucial to organizational and managerial success.
The Task Environment • Competitors • Organizations that produce goods and services that are similar to a particular organization’s goods and services • Rivalry between competitors is potentially the most threatening force that managers deal with
The Task Environment • Barriers to Entry • Factors that make it difficult and costly for the organization to enter a particular task environment or industry
Barriers to Entry • Economies of scale • Cost advantages associated with large operations • Brand loyalty • Customers’ preference for the products of organizations currently existing in the task environment. • Government regulations that impede entry
Barriers to Entry and Competition Figure 6.2
The General Environment • Economic Forces • Interest rates, inflation, unemployment, economic growth, and other factors that affect the general health and well-being of a nation or the regional economy of an organization.
The General Environment • Technology • The combination of skills and equipment that managers use in designing, producing, and distributing goods and services.
The General Environment • Technological Forces • Outcomes of changes in the technology that managers use to design, produce, or distribute goods and services
The General Environment • Sociocultural Forces • Pressures emanating from the social structure of a country or society or from the national culture
Sociocultural Forces • Social structure • the arrangement of relationships between individuals and groups in society • National culture • the set of values that a society considers important and the norms of behavior that are approved or sanctioned in that society.
The General Environment • Demographic Forces • Outcomes of change in, or changing attitudes toward, the characteristics of a population, such as age, gender, ethnic origin, race, sexual orientation, and social class
The General Environment • Political and Legal Forces • Outcomes of changes in laws and regulations, such as deregulation of industries, privatization of organizations, and increased emphasis on environmental protection.
The Global Environment Figure 6.3
Process of Globalization • Globalization • The set of specific and general forces that work together to integrate and connect economic, political, and social systems across countries, cultures, or geographical regions so that nations become increasingly interdependent and similar.
Declining Barriers to Trade and Investment • Tariff • A tax that government imposes on imported or, occasionally, exported goods. • Intended to protect domestic industry and jobs from foreign competition
Example - USITC The United States International Trade Commission is an “independent, quasi-judicial Federal agency with broad investigative responsibilities on matters of trade.” The Commission also serves as a Federal resource where trade data and other trade policy-related information are gathered and analyzed.
GATT and the Rise of Free Trade • Free-Trade Doctrine • The idea that if each country specializes in the production of the goods and services that it can produce most efficiently, this will make the best use of global resources and will result in lower prices
Declining Barriers of Distance and Culture - Unilever • Distance • Markets were essentially closed because of the slowness of communications over long distances. • Culture • Language barriers and cultural practices made managing overseas businesses difficult • Changes in Distance and Communication • Improvement in transportation technology and fast, secure communications have greatly reduced the barriers of physical and cultural distances.
Effects of Free Trade on Managers • Declining Trade Barriers • Opened enormous opportunities for managers to expand the market for their goods and services. • Allowed managers to now both buy and sell goods and services globally. • Increased intensity of global competition such that managers now have a more dynamic and exciting job of managing.
The Role of National Culture • Values • Ideas about what a society believes to be good, right, desirable and beautiful. • Provide the basic underpinnings for notions of individual freedom, democracy, truth, justice, honesty, loyalty, love, sex, marriage, etc.
The Role of National Culture • Norms • Unwritten rules and codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations. • Folkways, mores • Many differences in mores from one society to another
Hofstede’s Model of National Culture Figure 6.4
Hofstede’s Model of National Culture • Individualism • A worldview that values individual freedom and self-expression and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their individual achievements rather their social background. • Collectivism • A worldview that values subordination of the individual to the goals of the group and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their contribution to the group
Hofstede’s Model of National Culture • Power Distance • Degree to which societies accept the idea that inequalities in the power and well-being of their citizens are due to differences in individuals’ physical and intellectual capabilities and heritage
Hofstede’s Model of National Culture • Achievement orientation • A worldview that values assertiveness, performance, success, and competition • Nurturing orientation • Aworldview that values the quality of life, warm personal friendships, and services and care for the weak.
Hofstede’s Model of National Culture • Uncertainty Avoidance • The degree to which societies are willing to tolerate uncertainty and risk. • Low uncertainty avoidance cultures value diversity and tolerate a wide range of opinions and beliefs. • High uncertainty avoidance societies are more rigid and expect high conformity in their citizens’ beliefs and norms of behavior.
Hofstede’s Model of National Culture • Long-term orientation • Aworldview that values thrift and persistence in achieving goals. • Short-term orientation • Aworldview that values personal stability or happiness and living for the present.
Video Case: The Delmar Dog Butler What forces in the global environment are leading to outsourcing? What has outsourcing meant to countries like India? Do you think outsourcing is helping or hurting America?