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Attitudes. Chapter 6. Gordon Allport On the Importance of Attitudes. The attitude is the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary American social psychology. Defining Attitudes. Definition

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attitudes

Attitudes

Chapter 6

gordon allport on the importance of attitudes
Gordon AllportOn the Importance of Attitudes

The attitude is the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary American social psychology.

defining attitudes
Defining Attitudes
  • Definition
    • “Positive or negative evaluation of an object” (e.g., person, activity, group, object).
    • Psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor. (Eagly & Chaiken, 1998)
  • Elements of Attitudes (tripartite view)
    • Cognition (beliefs)
    • Evaluation (like vs. dislike)
    • Behavioral predisposition
  • Contemporary View
    • Attitudes are positive or negative (affective) evaluations of an attitude object
attitude toward behavior or object
Attitude toward Behavior (or Object)

n = # of attributes

ei = evaluation of behavior on attribute i

AB = Overall attitude

toward behavior

Σ = add up the (b x e) products

bi = Strength of belief that behavior has attribute i

subjective norm
Subjective Norm

m = # of people

MC = motivation to comply to person j

Σ = add up (NB x MC) products

SNB = Subjective Norm regarding behavior

NBj = Normative Belief of person j

theory of planned behavior when do attitudes guide behavior

Perceived

Behavioral

Control

Attitude

Intention

Subjective

Norms

Theory of Planned Behavior:When Do Attitudes Guide Behavior?

Behavior

  • Problems:
  • Doesn’t explain spontaneous or habit driven behavior very well.
  • May be better to think of BC as a moderator of att-intention relationship
attitude formation
Attitude Formation
  • Mere Exposure
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Reward and Punishment
    • Direct and Observational Learning
  • Self-Perception
    • When attitude is weak
  • Face, Head, and Body Movements…
  • Attitudes Formed to Serve Various Functions
    • Utilitarian (rewards, approval)
    • Knowledge (make sense of world)
    • Ego Defense (self-protection)
    • Value Expression
do attitudes predict behavior
Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?

Alan Wicker’s (1969) Conclusion

It is considerably more likely that attitudes will be unrelated or only slightly related to overt behaviors than that attitudes will be closely related to actions. It may be desirable to abandon the attitude construct.

a puzzling finding la piere s 1934 study
A Puzzling Finding:La Piere’s (1934) Study
  • Traveled with Chinese couple in early 30’s
  • Visited > 250 restaurants & hotels
  • Follow-Up Questionnaire
    • 90 % of owners said wouldn’t let Chinese in
    • but, only 1 actually refused
  • Highlights weak att-beh relationship
when do attitudes guide behavior
When Do Attitudes Guide Behavior?
  • A & B “match” in specificity
  • A & B measured close in time
  • A linked with intention to act
  • A based on direct experience
  • High Ego Involvement & Vested Interest
  • Low Self-Monitors
  • High Private Self-Awareness
  • A is extreme and accessible
    • mere thought, involvement enhance extremity
    • direct exp. & knowledge enhance accessibility
    • recently primed 
karremans et al 2006 jesp study 1 priming preference for lipton ice tea
Karremans et al. (2006, JESP, Study 1)Priming Preference for Lipton Ice Tea

Also rated

Intention to drink

Coke and Spa Rood

berger fitzsimons 2008 jmr pen color study
Berger & Fitzsimons (2008, JMR)Pen Color Study

Method

Subjects select

between orange

and green products

# Products Chosen

In another study,

subjects more likely

to recall orange products

week before Halloween

than 1 week later

measuring attitudes1
Measuring Attitudes
  • While attitudes not perfect predictors, still important
  • We need to understand how to measure attitudes accurately
  • Sometimes we need creative approaches, because people are either unable or unwilling to tell us the truth (Nisbett & Wilson; Rapaille)
nisbett wilson 1977 psych review telling more than we can know verbal reports on mental processes
Nisbett & Wilson (1977, Psych Review)Telling More Than We Can Know:Verbal Reports on Mental Processes
  • Cited 1478 times (that’s a lot!) – big impact
  • Three Main Conclusions. We are often…
  • Not aware of a response (snake phobics)
  • Not aware of a stimulus (the cord puzzle)
  • Not aware of a connection between stimulus and response (nylons)
valins ray 1967 snake phobics
Valins & Ray (1967) - Snake Phobics

EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION

CONTROL CONDITION

Stimulus

On Screen

Does Subject

Receive Shock?

“Heart Rate”

Sound After Stimulus

Same procedure, but

led to believe that the

sound they hear is

just extraneous noise.

Don’t believe it’s

their heart rate.

SHOCK

Yes

Increases

No

Doesn’t Change

  • Subject in experimental condition “learns” that he is afraid of shocks, but not snakes.
  • Later, he approaches a boa constrictor more closely than those in control condition.
  • BUT, when asked to verbally report on their attitudes, those in the experimental group still said they were as scared as those in control condition.
  • They were unaware that they had made an actual behavioral response (less fear).
slide29

Maier’s (1931) – Cord Puzzle

  • Subjects in a room must connect two cords hanging from ceiling.
  • Need to come up with 3 solutions.
  • Two solutions were easy (e.g., tie an extension cord to one and use it to pull toward the other), the third was harder.
  • After a few minutes of struggling to find right solution, experimenter casually swings one of the cords.
  • Within 45 seconds, subject “figures out” solution (ties a weight to one cord, swings it, runs to other cord, catches swinging cord).
  • When explaining how they solved it, they said “It just dawned on me” etc.
  • Less than a third, after careful probing, recognized effect of the experimenter
  • Conclusion? People were largely unaware of the stimulus (the swinging cord)
slide30

Nisbett & Wilson - Nylons Study

  • Four pairs of nylons on a table
  • Ask passersby in a mall to evaluate the nylons
  • Strong preference for nylons on the right: rightmost nylons preferred to left most nylons by almost a 4:1 ratio
  • When asked why, nobody said it was because the nylons were on the right
  • Even when told it might be a position effect, subjects denied it
  • Conclusion? People were unaware of the connection between the stimulus (position) and the response (preference for nylons on the right)
nisbett wilson 1977 psych review telling more than we can know verbal reports on mental processes1
Nisbett & Wilson (1977, Psych Review)Telling More Than We Can Know:Verbal Reports on Mental Processes
  • Not aware of a response (snake phobics)
  • Not aware of a stimulus (the cord puzzle)
  • Not aware of a connection between stimulus and response (nylons)
  • So what? So this: we may need more creative techniques to assess people’s attitudes
  • Enter Dr. ClotaireRapaille
archetype discoveries worldwide http www rapailleinstitute com

Dr. ClotaireRapaille

Archetype Discoveries Worldwidehttp://www.rapailleinstitute.com/

I don’t care what you’re going to tell me intellectually.

I don’t care. Give me the reptilian. Why?

Because the reptilian always wins.

the reptilian brain
The Reptilian Brain

Reptilian

Oldest part of brain

from an evolutionary

perspective

Paul D. MacLean (1913 - 2007)

American physician

Neuroscientist

Yale, NIMH

  • Triune Brain Theory
  • Reptilian brain (instincts)
  • Limbic system (emotion)
  • Neocortex (higher order thought)
slide34

Dr. ClotaireRapaille

Internationally known expert in Archetype Discoveries and Creativity

Archetype: In psychology, according to the theory of psychologist Carl Jung, an idea or way of thinking that has been inherited from the experience of the race and remains in the consciousness of the individual, influencing his perception of the world. (Webster’s)

Dr. Rapaille's technique for market research based on his work in the areas of psychiatry, psychology, and cultural anthropology.

Dr. Rapaille searches for the “code” behind certain words and ideas (e.g., luxury), and uses these insights to help marketers promote their products.

slide35

Dr. ClotaireRapaille

On the Limitations of Traditional Marketing Researchers:

“They are too cortex, which means that they think too much, and then they ask people to think and to tell them what they think. Now, my experience is that most of the time, people have no idea why they’re doing what they’re doing. They have no idea, so they’re going to try to make up something that makes sense. Why do you need a Hummer to go shopping? “Well, you see, because in case there is a snowstorm.” No. Why [do] you buy four wheel drive? “Well, you know, in case I need to go off-road.” Well, you live in Manhattan; why do you need four wheel drive in Manhattan? “Well, you know, sometime[s] I go out, and I go—” You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to understand that this is disconnected. This is nothing to do with what the real reason is for people to do what they do. So there are many limits in traditional market research.”

Dr. Rapaille in action: Finding the code for “luxury”

creative measures of attitudes
Creative Measures of Attitudes
  • Projective techniques (partially structured)
  • Physiological (GSR; Heart Rate; Blood Pressure)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  • Flushing toilets
  • Bogus pipeline
  • Lost letters and emails*
  • Implicit association test (IAT)*
you ve got mail method
You’ve Got Mail!(Method)
  • Bushman & Bonacci (2004, JESP)
  • Pretested on Arab-American Prejudice
  • 2 weeks later, receive email intended for a different person
  • 2 IVs
    • Intended recipient had European-American (Peter Price) vs. Arab-American name (Mohammed Hameed)
    • Intended recipient won or didn’t win a scholarship (4 years support)
  • DV = willingness to return the email to the sender to indicate it was incorrectly delivered (must be done in 2 days)
you ve got mail
You’ve Got Mail!

Dear Peter Price,

Thank you for applying for a Glassner Foundation Scholarship. As you know, these scholarships are highly competitive and are given only to a few select students. They cover tuition for four years at a state-funded university. There is also an additional $500 per year for academic supplies.

Because of the large number of applicants this year we are late in sending out these notices. Because of the time sensitive nature of this material, we wanted to immediately inform you of the committee’s decision regarding your application.

We are happy to inform you that you have been selected to receive a Glassner Scholarship.

We ask that you respond within 48 hours. Due to the high number of applicants, we would like to extend the scholarship to others applicants if you do not accept the scholarship.

you ve got mail1
You’ve Got Mail!

Dear Mohammed Hameed,

Thank you for applying for a Glassner Foundation Scholarship. As you know, these scholarships are highly competitive and are given only to a few select students. They cover tuition for four years at a state-funded university. There is also an additional $500 per year for academic supplies.

Because of the large number of applicants this year we are late in sending out these notices. Because of the time sensitive nature of this material, we wanted to immediately inform you of the committee’s decision regarding your application.

We are happy to inform you that you have been selected to receive a Glassner Scholarship.

We ask that you respond within 48 hours. Due to the high number of applicants, we would like to extend the scholarship to others applicants if you do not accept the scholarship.

you ve got mail2
You’ve Got Mail!

Dear Mohammed Hameed,

Thank you for applying for a Glassner Foundation Scholarship. As you know, these scholarships are highly competitive and are given only to a few select students. They cover tuition four four years at a state-funded university. There is also an additional $500 per year for academic supplies.

Because of the large number of applicants this year we are late in sending out these notices. Because of the time sensitive nature of this material, we wanted to immediately inform you of the committee’s decision regarding your application.

We regret to inform you that you have not been selected to receive a Glasser Scholarship.

We ask that you respond within 48 hours. Due to the high number of applicants, we would like to extend the scholarship to others applicants if you do not accept the scholarship.

implicit association task iat
Implicit Association Task - IAT
  • An implicit attitude is an attitude which people are not conscious of (or would not want to admit to) but which can be assessed via the associations people have in their minds
  • The IAT is a reaction time (RT) task in which subjects categorize words (positive, negative) and attitude objects (McCain, Obama) on the left or right side of screen
  • Some trials involve categorizations that are consistent with an implicit attitude, others are inconsistent with the attitude
  • If there is an implicitly negative attitude toward Obama, then reaction times should be slower to the inconsistent trials
slide45

The following set of trials is consistentwith an implicitly negativeattitude toward ObamaReaction times should berelatively fast if thereis an implicitly negative attitudetoward Obama

slide46

Good Word or

McCain

Bad Word or

Obama

If you see a good word or McCain, hit “e” (left)

If you see a bad word or Obama, hit “i” (right)

slide47

Good Word or

McCain

Bad Word or

Obama

slide48

Good Word or

McCain

Bad Word or

Obama

Dirt

slide49

Good Word or

McCain

Bad Word or

Obama

slide50

Good Word or

McCain

Bad Word or

Obama

Happy

slide51

Now Change Categorization(Inconsistent with Implicit Negative Attitude Toward Obama) Reaction times should beslower than before if thereis an implicitly negative attitudetoward Obama

slide52

Good Word or

Obama

Bad Word or

McCain

If you see a bad word or McCain, hit “e” (left)

If you see a good word or Obama, hit “i” (right)

slide53

Good Word or

Obama

Bad Word or

McCain

slide54

Good Word or

Obama

Bad Word or

McCain

Joy

slide55

Good Word or

Obama

Bad Word or

McCain

Death

slide56

Good Word or

Obama

Bad Word or

McCain

iat effect rt inconsistent rt consistent
IAT EffectRT Inconsistent – RT Consistent
  • It’s a bit more complicated than this, but overall, this captures the idea.
  • A bigger (positive) difference score between these reaction times (RT) suggests an implicitly negative attitude toward Obama
  • IAT tends to be better predictor of spontaneous behavior