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Attitudes. Where do attitudes come from? Petersen, Sznycer , Sell, Cosmides , & Tooby , 2013 What do we have attitudes on? . What is an attitude?. Valence and extremity Attitude accessibility Affective, cognitive, and behavioral components Attitude functions Attitude knowledge

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Presentation Transcript
what is an attitude

Where do attitudes come from?

    • Petersen, Sznycer, Sell, Cosmides, & Tooby, 2013
  • What do we have attitudes on?
What is an attitude?
attitude structure

Valence and extremity

  • Attitude accessibility
  • Affective, cognitive, and behavioral components
  • Attitude functions
  • Attitude knowledge
  • Attitude ambivalence
  • Attitude importance, certainty, personal relevance, etc.
  • Effects on
    • priming and introspection effects
    • attitude stability
    • prediction of behavior
Attitude structure
persuasion

Hovland, WW2 researchers (50s, 60s)

    • Who said what to whom
    • Learning principles
  • Festinger, 1957
    • Cognitive dissonance theory
    • “New looks” of dissonance
  • Greenwald, Petty, Ostrom, Brock (80s)
    • Cognitive response approach
    • Thoughts elicited matter
Persuasion
elm petty cacioppo 1986

What does the ELM predict

    • Central vs. peripheral route
    • What determines persuasion in high vs. low EL situations?
    • Senior comprehensive exam paradigm
    • How do attitudes formed or changed through central vs. peripheral differ?
  • Heuristic systematic model (Eagly & Chaiken, 1986)
ELM (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)
more persuasion work

Anderson (80s)

    • Information integration theory
    • Averaging info
  • Latané, Harton, Tesser (90s)
    • Catastrophe theory
    • Dynamical systems approach
  • Brinol & Petty (2009)
    • Self-validation theory
    • Thoughts matter more when confidence in them
    • Wilson’s research on thinking about reasons (80s, 90s)
More persuasion work
earl albarracin 2007

What is a meta-analysis?

  • What effects do fear appeals have? (Hovland, McGuire)
  • Fear-inducing arguments (risk arguments there or not), HIV counseling and testing, sample HIV rates
  • Over time
  • Perceived risk of HIV, knowledge, condom use
  • How does time affect emotion and behavioral change?
    • Moderators?
  • Any problems with the meta-analysis?
  • Implications?
EARL & albarracin, 2007
implicit vs explicit attitudes

How are implicit and explicit attitudes related?

Meta-cognitive model (Petty & Brinol, 2006)

Wilson’s (Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000) dual attitude approach?

Implicit vsexplicit attitudes
associative propositional evaluation model gawronski bodenhausen 2006

What does this model add that’s new?

What are associative and propositional evaluations and what effects do they have?

Is it a single or dual process model?

Is implicit = associative and explicit = propositional?

How do we use propositional reasoning to reduce cognitive inconsistency?

What effects do thought have on the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes?

According to this approach, are there really enduring attitudes, or do we just make them up on the spot?

Associative-Propositional Evaluation Model (Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006)
ape and attitude change

What does the model suggest about when implicit attitudes will change?

Explicit attitudes?

How do implicit and explicit attitudes relate to each other?

APE and attitude change
slide12

How does it differ from the ELM (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)

HSM (Chaiken & Eagly, 1987)?

Unimodel (Kruglanski & Thompson, 1999)?

What does it suggest about attitude stability?

IAT and implicit measurement issues

APE
attitudes and behavior

LaPiere, 1934

  • Wicker, 1969
  • Why might attitudes not predict behavior?
  • When do attitudes predict behavior?
  • Recent approaches:
    • Accessibility
    • Theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1980)
    • Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991)
    • Implicit vs. explicit attitudes?
Attitudes and behavior