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Chapter 3: Regional Civilizations, AD 400-1500. Dome of the Rock. Text pgs. 86-123. Great Zimbabwe. Charlemagne. Genghis Khan.

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chapter 3 regional civilizations ad 400 1500

Chapter 3: Regional Civilizations, AD 400-1500

Dome of the Rock

Text pgs. 86-123

Great Zimbabwe

Charlemagne

Genghis Khan

i islamic empires a the arabs

The Arabian Peninsula (modern-day Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman) is a harsh place, dominated by deep-sand deserts with very little vegetation. The people who live there, the Arabs, are closely related to the ancient Israelites and Assyrians.

  • The Arabs were nomadic people who herded goats, sheep and later camels. For mutual support, they organized themselves into extended-family tribes.
  • The Arab people claim descent from Abraham’s second son, Ishmael, who is supposed to have built a temple in Mecca to honor Allah (“the all-powerful”). The centerpiece of this temple is the Black Stone.
  • In ancient times, the Arabs worshipped a variety of gods in addition to Allah.
I. Islamic Empires:A. The Arabs

The Kaaba at Mecca

i islamic empires b muhammad

Muhammad was born some time in the late 500s AD, in the city of Mecca. He was a member of a merchant family, and he was expected to go into the caravan business. He was troubled, though, and often went into the mountains to pray.

  • On one of his prayer vigils, he was visited by the angel Gabriel, who told him that God’s revelation was not complete. Moses and Jesus had been prophets, among others, but Muhammad would be the final prophet.
  • Muhammad wrote down the wisdom given to him by the angel, and these writings would later be collected into the Quran, the holy scripture of Islam.
  • Followers of this new faith are called Muslims. In Arabic, the official language of Islam, “Muslim” means “peace through submission to the will of Allah.” Islam is a monotheistic religion which worships Allah alone. The Old Testament prophets are revered, as is Jesus, but the most important prophet is Muhammad.
I. Islamic Empires:B. Muhammad

The Angel Gabriel

The Quran

i islamic empires b muhammad1

Muhammad’s new religion was unpopular in his hometown of Mecca, so he and some of his closest followers left for the nearby city of Medina in AD 622. This relocation is remembered as the Hijrah, and it marks Year One on the Muslim calendar. Muhammad’s preaching was much more popular in Medina, and by AD 630, he had thousands of followers.

  • Early Islam was also a political movement, and Muhammad created a private army of ten thousand men. With this force, he returned to Mecca, where the people surrendered and most of them converted to Islam.
  • Muhammad declared the Kaaba in Mecca to be a holy site. Today, Muslims are encouraged to make a pilgrimage there, called a hajj, at least once in their lives.
  • Muhammad died in Mecca in AD 632.
I. Islamic Empires:B. Muhammad

Mosque at Medina

The Hajj

The Hijrah

i islamic empires c islam

Muslims worship Allah, another name for the God of Judaism and Christianity. Allah is the creator of the universe and the guarantor of the afterlife.

  • Muslims do not consider Muhammad to be divine. He is a prophet, like Moses or other Old Testament teachers. He is not the son of God.
  • Muslim spiritual life is based on the Five Pillars of Islam:
  • 1. Shahada– A declaration of faith. “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.”
  • 2. Salat– Daily prayers. Good Muslims are expected to pray towards Mecca five times a day.
  • 3. Zakat – Acts of charity. Muslims donate 2.5% of their income to the poor and charitable work.
  • 4. Ramadan – Month of fasting. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink from sunrise to sunset.
  • 5. Hajj – Pilgrimage. Once in their lives, Muslims should visit Mecca and Medina.
I. Islamic Empires:C. Islam

How to bow for

Daily prayers

i islamic empires d creation of an empire

Battle of Yarmuk

  • Following Muhammad’s death, spiritual and political leadership was given to his father-in-law, Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr ruled as the first caliph, or successor to the Prophet.
  • As the Muslim faith spread throughout the Middle East, Abu Bakr’s armies conquered the territory through military campaigns. At the Battle of Yarmukin AD 636, the Arabs defeated a much larger Byzantine army by attacking during a dust storm. By AD 650, Arab armies had taken all of Syria from the Byzantines and conquered Persia, Egypt and North Africa.
  • Arab soldiers fought with uncommon bravery and disregard for danger. This was partially because the Quran promised heavenly rewards for all who died in defense of the Faith.
I. Islamic Empires:D. Creation of an Empire
i islamic empires e the umayyad dynasty

Abu Bakr died in AD 634, leaving no obvious heir. Various men who had been close to the Prophet became caliph, including his son-in-law Ali.

  • The fifth caliph, Mu’awiyah, had been the governor of Syria. He moved the capital of the empire to Damascus, in his home territory. He also made the caliphate a hereditary position, passing it on to his son un his death in AD 680. His family ruled as the Umayyad Dynasty from AD 661-750.
  • Under the Umayyad caliphs, the Arab Empire extended its control over the Berber people of North Africa. They invaded and conquered most of Spain, but were prevented from invading France at the Battle of Tours in AD 732. An Arab fleet also attacked Constantinople in AD 717, but it was defeated. Arab expansion had been halted for the time being.
I. Islamic Empires:E. The Umayyad Dynasty

Umayyad Mosque, Damascus

Battle of Tours

i islamic empires f the abbasid dynasty

A descendant of Muhammad’s uncle, Abu al-Abbas, overthrew the last of the Umayyad caliphs in AD 750. al-Abbas established his own caliphate, the Abbasid Dynasty, which lasted until 1258.

  • The Abbasid Dynasty was a period of prosperity for the Arab Empire. Al-Abbas moved the capital east to Baghdad, where the trade routes from India and China converged. The empire grew wealthy from international commerce and from the agricultural production of former Roman provinces in Asia Minor and North Africa.
  • The greatest of the Abbasid caliphs was Harun al-Rashid (ruled AD 786-809). He used the wealth of the empire to aid the poor and support artists and writers.
  • During the Abbasid dynasty, Baghdad’s control of the farther provinces became lax, and several broke away to found their own dynasties. A family called the Fatimids established independent rule over Egypt from their capital at Cairo in AD 973.
I. Islamic Empires:F. The Abbasid Dynasty

Abu al-Abbas

Harun al-Rashid

i islamic empires g the seljuk turks

The Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt became prosperous in the 900s AD by controlling trade from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and India. They used their wealth to build a large army composed of non-Arab Muslims, including the Seljuks.

  • The Seljuk Turks came from Central Asia and had converted to Islam in the late 800s. They made exceptional soldiers in the Abbasid armies, but they were politically ambitious. They came to dominate the eastern provinces of Armenia and Persia.
  • As the Abbasid caliphs became weaker, the Seljuk Turks took over more territory and authority. In AD 1055, the Seljuks captured Baghdad and their leader Kutalmishdeclared himself sultan (“holder of power”). The Abbasid caliph remained as the spiritual head of state, but all political and military decisions were made by the sultan.
I. Islamic Empires:G. The Seljuk Turks

Seljuk soldiers

i islamic empires h the mongols

The Mongol Empire originated in northern China around AD 1175 under its first leader, Genghis Khan (real name: Temujin). They spread rapidly westward, and by AD 1258, they had reached Baghdad.

  • The new khan, Hülegü, conquered and destroyed the Abbasid caliphate and established a Mongol state in the Middle East. Hülegü, who hated Islam, destroyed the entire city of Baghdad.
  • Later khans converted to Islam and adopted other local customs, but the Arab empire had been broken and replaced. The center of Islamic culture and power shifted to the Fatamidkingdom of Egypt and its capital in Cairo.
I. Islamic Empires:H. The Mongols

Mongol Horse-Archers

Hülegü Khan

i islamic empires i economics and society

The Arab empires prospered through international trade. Ships and camel caravans visited the Byzantine Empire, India, China, southeast Asia and Africa.

  • Exports: Grain from Egypt; linen, dates and gems from Iraq; textiles from western India.
  • Imports: Gold, ivory and slaves from Africa; silk and porcelain from China; spices and rare woods from India and southeast Asia.
  • Prosperity led to urbanization. The great cities of the Empire, especially Baghdad and Cairo, were some of the largest and most beautiful population centers in the world. Wealthy merchants patronized artists, scientists and philosophers.
I. Islamic Empires:I. Economics and Society
i islamic empires j philosophy and science

The works of Classical Greek philosophers like Aristotle and Plato were forgotten by Europeans during the Dark Ages, but Arab scholars preserved them. Ibn-Rushd included his own learned commentaries with his translation of Aristotle, which were later translated into Latin.

  • Arab mathematicians adopted the number system of India, including the concept of zero. This, too, was passed on to Europe.
  • Muslim astronomers observed the sky and determined that the earth was round. They invented the astrolabe, an important tool for navigation.
  • IbnSina, a philosopher and doctor, wrote a medical encyclopedia which was used as a textbook in European universities for hundreds of years.
I. Islamic Empires:J. Philosophy and Science

Indian numerical system

Astrolabe

i islamic empires k art and architecture

In the Islamic tradition, it is a blasphemy to draw or paint human figures. It is especially insulting to display a picture of Muhammad or Allah.

  • Architecture is the most recognizable expression of Islamic art. The style is a combination of Arabic, Turkish and Persian elements that focus on geometric shapes and fine detail.
  • The Great Mosque at Samarra is famous for its unique minaret. The 90-foot tower features an exterior staircase.
  • Built in the 800s AD, the mosque in Cordobá, Spain includes a “forest” of double arches and decorative columns.
I. Islamic Empires:K. Art and Architecture

Great Mosque at Samarra

Mosque at Cordobá

i islamic empires homework

Answer each question in a half-page response with complete sentences. Be accurate, be specific, be complete. Due tomorrow.

  • 1. What elements does Islam share with Judaism and Christianity? What are some key differences? (Pgs. 90-91)
  • 2. Read the “Opposing Viewpoints” box on pgs. 92-93. Can the two explanations both be true? What do you find surprising about the two opinions? Which one do you think is more likely?
  • 3. Name and describe three ways that Islamic art and science contributed to the culture of the West. (Pgs. 94-95)
I. Islamic Empires:Homework
ii african civilizations a early states

Africa is the most geographically diverse continent. It is nearly 5000 miles from north to south and features vast rain forests near the equator, two extensive grasslands, and temperate zones at the north and south coasts. The continent is almost completely surrounded by oceans and seas.

  • The earliest agricultural civilization in Africa was Egypt, closely followed by Kush and Axum. Later, several regional kingdoms formed in the equatorial zone.
II. African Civilizations:A. Early States
ii african civilizations b kush

As early as 2000 BC, the people of Nubia were trading and interacting with their Egyptian neighbors to the north. For a long time, Nubia was dominated by Egypt, but in 1000 BC, they achieved their independence and became the kingdom of Kush.

  • Kush conquered Egypt for a brief period of time (727-653 BC), but the glory days of the kingdom came later, from 250 BC to AD 150. During this period, Kush controlled trade into and out of Central Africa.
  • Kush was eventually displaced by Axum.
II. African Civilizations:B. Kush

Pyramids at Menoe, Sudan

ii african civilizations c axum

Axum began as a colony of Arab settlers around 1000 BC. They occupied the mountains and highlands of the Horn of Africa, in modern-day Ethiopia. Their influence spread and by the second century AD, they controlled much of East Africa.

  • In AD 330, the king of Axum, Ezana, converted to Christianity. Over the next several generations, most of the population also converted. Ethiopia is a predominantly Christian country today.
  • In AD 641, Muslim Arabs invaded and conquered Egypt and much of the Red Sea coast. For 500 years, Muslims and Christians lived in harmony in East Africa, but in the twelfth century AD, Muslim merchants began to move inland and compete with Axum’s ancient trade routes.
II. African Civilizations:C. Axum

Axum obelisk: AD 300, 79 ft. tall

Coin showing King Ezana

ii african civilizations d kingdom of ghana

The first in a series of wealthy West African kingdoms, Ghana was founded around AD 500. The nation was located along the Niger River south of the Sahara Desert.

  • Ghana controlled abundant gold mines and produced much of the gold circulated in the Middle Ages. They traded their mineral wealth to Arab merchants across the Sahara for horses, metal tools, cloth and salt. This trade was carried across the desert by Berber middle-men who used camel caravans.
  • The kings of Ghana ruled without any formal laws. They held power by maintaining a large, professional army.
II. African Civilizations:D. Kingdom of Ghana
ii african civilizations e kingdom of mali

Sankore Mosque,

Timbuktu

  • As Ghana began to weaken in the 1100s AD, one of the new kingdoms that grew in its shadow was the southern kingdom of Mali.
  • Under its first ruler, Sundiata Keita, Mali united and defeated Ghana, capturing the capital in 1240 AD. Mali took over the profitable gold and salt trade.
  • A later king, Mansa Musa (ruled AD 1312-1337), doubled the size of Mali. Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim who encouraged the building of mosques and establishment of schools. He built the trading center at Timbuktu.
  • When he went on hajj to Mecca, Mansa Musa took with him an entourage of thousands. This display of wealth and power gave Mali the reputation of being an important African nation.
II. African Civilizations:E. Kingdom of Mali

Mansa Musa

ii african civilizations f kingdom of songhai

Muhammad Ture

  • As the authority of Mali began to wane in the 1400s AD, yet another kingdom arose to replace it. Sunni Ali, the first king of Songhai, came to power in AD 1464. He spent nearly his entire reign waging war against Mali and other neighbors.
  • At its height under Muhammad Ture, Songhai controlled an empire that covered over 1000 miles along the Niger River. It controlled the same lucrative gold and salt economy of West Africa.
II. African Civilizations:F. Kingdom of Songhai
ii african civilizations g east and south africa

As early as 1000 BC, people speaking dialects of the Bantu language family began to move from West Africa into the east coast and the Congo River basin. These were settlers, not conquerors, and their colonization continued peacefully for hundreds of years.

  • Beginning in the 700s AD, Arab colonists established trading cities along the east and south coasts of Africa. These cities included Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa. They traded for gold and slaves from the interior.
  • From AD 1300 to 1450, the kingdom of Zimbabwe in South Africa established another trade empire. The capital, now called Great Zimbabwe, was a fortified hilltop city surrounded by huge granite walls. At its height, Great Zimbabwe had perhaps 10,000 occupants.
II. African Civilizations:G. East and South Africa

Great Zimbabwe

ii african civilizations h society and culture

The African concept of kingship was different from that in Europe. African kings would hear the complaints and suggestions of their people.

  • African society was based around lineage groups, or systems of extended families, which managed local leadership and organized community labor projects.
  • African religious practices vary widely from one region to another. Most indigenous religions are polytheistic, ancestor-worshipping and practice divination.
  • West African art uses a variety of media, including painting, weaving, and woodcarving. Artisans at Ife and Benin produced beautiful bronze and iron sculptures in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
II. African Civilizations:H. Society and Culture

Spirit possession ceremony

Bronze statue made at Ife

ii african civilizations homework

Answer each question in a half-page response with complete sentences. Be accurate, be specific, be complete. Due tomorrow.

  • 1. What products did Ghana, Mali and Songhai export? What did they import? Why were camels necessary to this trade? (Pgs. 98-101)
  • 2. What does SundiataKeita’s name mean? What did he overcome as a young man? Why did he maintain traditional religious beliefs in addition to Islam? (“People in History” box, pg. 98)
  • 3. What do the walled enclosures tell us about the kingdom of Zimbabwe? (Pg. 100)
II. African Civilizations:Homework
iii asia a china reunified

After the Han dynasty fell in AD 220, China had 360 years of chaos and civil war. Nobody was in charge, and little historical evidence remains of this period.

  • In AD 581, a new imperial dynasty, the Sui, managed to assert its authority over China. The Sui only lasted 39 years (to AD 618), but they reformed the empire and paved the way for further dynasties.
III. Asia:A. China Reunified

Coins of the Sui era

iii asia b the tang dynasty

The next dynasty of imperial China, the Tang, ruled from AD 618-907. Tang rulers worked to stabilize the nation through reforms. They brought back the civil service exams created under the Qin dynasty. They took land away from wealthy magnates and gave it to peasant farmers. They also extended China’s borders to the edge of Tibet.

  • In the late 700s AD, the Tang dynasty began to lose control over their nation. They hired Uighur mercenary soldiers from central Asia to protect themselves, but by AD 907 they had lost the Mandate of Heaven.
III. Asia:B. The Tang Dynasty

Uighur cavalry

iii asia c the song dynasty

After a brief period of civil war, the Song dynasty took control of China in AD 960. They ruled the nation until AD 1279, a period of prosperity and cultural development.

  • During the entire Song period, China was menaced by northern neighbors. The Manchurians attacked and forced the Song emperors to move their capital south to Hangzhou.
  • In the 1200s AD, the Mongols of central Asia began to attack Song China. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan (see III.E, F), the Mongols conquered China and created a vast empire.
III. Asia:C. The Song Dynasty

Moveable type

iii asia d government economy and society

Under the Sui, Tang and Song dynasties, China re-established a central monarchy and large state bureaucracy based on Confucian principles.

  • During this 700-year period, the Chinese economy diversified. The agricultural base expanded and became more efficient. Chinese technicians invented moveable type, gunpowder, steel, and a type of flame thrower.
  • Trade was renewed with the West, largely because the Arab empires had unified the West and re-opened the Silk Road. Cities in China grew and prospered. This is the China that Marco Polo visited in 1274.
  • While the majority of people continued to live in agricultural villages, society became more complex.New middle classes and the displaced poor contributed to a less clearly stratified society.
III. Asia:D. Government, Economy and Society

Fire-Lance

Marco Polo

iii asia e the mongol empire

The Mongols were a horse-raising nomadic people from the central Asian steppes. In AD 1206, they elected as their leader (or “khan”) a young man named Temujin. He was given the title Genghis Khan, and he spent the next 20 years conquering all of the Mongols’ neighbors. He created the largest land empire in history, including all of Asia and part of eastern Europe.

  • Genghis’s death in AD 1227 meant that his empire was split between his sons, creating competing khanates that continued to conquer territories. In AD 1231, the Mongols attacked Persia. In 1258, they sacked Baghdad and destroyed the Abbasid Empire. By 1279, they had defeated Song China.
III. Asia:E. The Mongol Empire

The Mongol Hordes

iii asia f the mongol dynasty in china

Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, invaded and conquered China in AD 1279. He deposed the Song emperor and established his own family as the Yuan Dynasty. He built a new capital in the north of China called Khanbaliq. Today it is called Beijing.

  • Kublai Khan sent military expeditions to conquer Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, and twice against Japan. Only Vietnam was conquered, and then only for a while.
  • The Yuan Dynasty ruled China effectively and prosperously until AD 1368. A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhangraised an army, defeated the Mongols, and established his own Ming Dynasty.
III. Asia:F. The Mongol Dynasty in China

Kublai Khan

Bronze statue

Fine China

iii asia g religion

During the Sui and Tang dynasties, Confucianism had lost favor with the ruling class, although it continued to influence the government. Instead, emperors and their courts followed Buddhism and Daoism.

  • The Mongol rulers preferred the old ways. They reinstated Confucian principles at court and favored its practice amongst the population.
  • Confucianism continued to be the official state philosophy until the middle of the twentieth century.
III. Asia:G. Religion

Confucianism

Buddhism

Daoism

iii asia h a golden age in art and literature

The period from AD 618 to 1644, which coincides with the Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties, was the most productive period for art in Chinese history.

  • Influenced by Daoism, painters of this era created landscapes that attempt to balance the earth and sky. Features are not drawn realistically, but rather ideally. Blank spaces are left to show that the whole truth is unknowable.
  • The printing press made literature more available than in any previous era. Poetry was the highest form of Chinese writing. Poets wrote about nature, the shortness of life and the sorrow of parting.
III. Asia:H. A Golden Age in Art and Literature

“Beside my bed the bright moonbeams bound

Almost as if there were frost on the ground.

Raising up, I gaze at the Mountain moon;

Lying back, I think of my old home town.”

-- Li Bai, AD 710-762

iii asia i the rise of the japanese state

The course of Japanese history has been very different from that of China, largely for geographical reasons. Japan is a chain of islands, the four largest of which are Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku. This means the populations are somewhat isolated and there is very little agricultural land to go around.

  • In the early 600s AD, a prince of the Yamato clan, ShotokoTaishi, attempted to unify Japan for the first time. Initially, his plan was only to repel Chinese invaders, but eventually he developed a centralized government.
  • Taishi’s government, modeled on the Chinese plan, made the emperor a supernatural figure. This solidified the Yamato rule and weakened the power of regional aristocrats.
III. Asia:I. The Rise of the Japanese State

ShokotoTaishi and Friends

iii asia j the nara period

ShokotoTaishi died in AD 622. Subsequent emperors were still from the Yamato clan, and began to use the title “son of heaven,” but they were used as figureheads for the real ruling family, the Fujiwara clan.

  • The Fujiwaras moved the capital to their own territory, the city of Nara. With the emperor in their control, they collected national taxes for themselves.
  • The emperor and the central government were unable to exert control over the aristocrats. By AD 794, they had virtually no influence.
III. Asia:J. The Nara Period

Great Buddha at Nara

An early Yamato emperor

iii asia k the heian period

In AD 794, the capital was again moved to Heian (present-day Kyoto). The emperor continued to be a puppet of the Fujiwara clan, and central authority continued to erode.

  • Real power in this era increasingly rested with local lords, who owned tax-exempt farmland. With no government to preserve law and order, these lords created and maintained private armies.
  • These armies were composed of samurai, or “those who serve.” Like European knights, the samurai were loyal to their feudal masters and provided military service. They were expected to live by a strict moral code, called Bushido (“the way of the warrior”).
III. Asia:K. The Heian Period

Samurai in the 19th century

iii asia l the kamakura shogunate

By AD 1192, Japan had experienced hundreds of years of civil war between the aristocratic families. Finally, a powerful noble named MinamotoYoritomowas able to defeat his neighbors and establish a new capital at Tokyo.

  • MinamotoYoritomo established a period of rule by powerful generals, or shoguns. During this period, called the Kamakura Shogunate, the emperor became an entirely ceremonial function.
  • The shogunate worked well enough to help guide Japan through a serious crisis. In AD 1281, Kublai Khan sent a Chinese fleet to invade Japan, but it was completely destroyed by a typhoon.
  • By AD 1331, central authority had again broken down. Powerful families, now called daimyo, ran their provinces as they saw fit. From AD 1477-1487, all of Japan was consumed in yet another destructive civil war.
III. Asia:L. The Kamakura Shogunate

Kamikaze

Tokugawa Ieyasu

iii asia m life and culture in early japan

Most people in early Japan made their living by fishing or rice farming. During the Kamakura Shogunate, manufacturing and other types of industry arose in the cities. Japan exported worked iron, paper and raw materials to China and Korea in exchange for silk, porcelain, books and copper.

  • The early Japanese practiced a form of folk spirituality based on ancestor worship and nature spirits, called kami. These beliefs evolved over time into a state-supported religion called Shintoism, which is still practiced today.
  • Japanese painting and architecture feature decorative landscapes, including koi ponds and sculptured shrubs.
III. Asia:M. Life and Culture in Early Japan

Golden Pavilion, Kyoto

Shinto priest and arches

iii asia n india after the guptas

When the Indian Gupta Empire came to an end in AD 554, there was no new power to take over. Instead, hundreds of small Hindu states warred with each other for hundreds of years.

  • When the Muslim empire expanded in the late 600s and early 700s AD, they occupied what is now Afghanistan. In AD 997, a group of Muslim Turkish slaves and their leader Mahmud of Ghazniinvaded Pakistan .
  • A group of Hindu warriors, the Rajputs, attempted to defend India from the Muslim invaders, but their old-fashioned tactics were no match for Turkish cavalry.
  • By AD 1200, the Muslim invasion had conquered all of northern India, which came to be called the Sultanate of Delhi.
III. Asia:N. India after the Guptas

Rajputs on war elephant

iii asia o the impact of timur lenk

By the 1380s AD, the Sultanate of Delhi had begun to decline. It was no longer the military power it had once been, and was unable to effectively defend itself when a Mongol warlord named TimurLenkinvaded.

  • TimurLenk (called Tamerlane in Europe) was the leader of a Mongol horde based in Samarkand. Between AD 1369 and 1405, TimurLenk conquered all of the territory between Samarkand and Constantinople. When he attacked the city of Delhi, he executed over 100,000 Hindu prisoners outside the gates.
  • When TimurLenk died in the midst of his conquests, he left a power vacuum in India. It was eventually filled by the Moguls from within and Portuguese merchant-adventurers from without.
III. Asia:O. The Impact of TimurLenk

TimurLenk

iii asia p islam and indian society

JamaMaszid, Delhi

  • The Muslim rulers of India maintained a strict separation between themselves and the Hindu population. They used mostly peaceful means to encourage Hindus to convert to Islam, but they still imposed Islamic customs on the country and its people.
  • From very early on, Muslim-Hindu relations were characterized by mutual suspicion and dislike. This prevented the nation from cooperating across religious lines.
III. Asia:P. Islam and Indian Society
iii asia q civilization in southeast asia

Southeast Asia is a term that covers two geographical regions. The first is a peninsula that extends southeast from between India and China. It includes the modern nations of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Burma and mainland Malaysia.

  • The other region in Southeast Asia encompasses an archipelago of hundreds of islands. These include the modern nations of Indonesia, New Guinea,the Malaysian islands and the Philippines.
  • Positioned between the advanced civilizations of India and China, Southeast Asia became a cultural melting pot and a destination for international traders.
III. Asia:Q. Civilization in Southeast Asia
iii asia r the formation of states

Individual nations emerged in Southeast Asia between AD 500 and 1500. Most of these states followed Chinese or Indian models, but with unique local adaptations.

  • Vietnam had been conquered by China in 111 BC, but quickly threw out the invaders. Two nations, called Dai Viet andChampa,emerged, which practiced Confucianism .
  • In the 700s AD, a ruler named Jayavarmanestablished an empire over the Khmer people of modern Cambodia. He and his successors kept their capital at Angkor Thom.
III. Asia:R. The Formation of States
iii asia r the formation of states1

The Angkor Empire was displaced in AD 1432 by the Thai people from the north. They established a new capital at Ayutthaya, where they ruled for more than 400 years.

  • The Burmanpeople of the west founded the Pagan civilization beginning in the eleventh century AD. Their state followed an Indian pattern of government and religion.
  • The Malay Peninsula and the islands of the eastern Indian Ocean were never unified as a single state, though they mostly shared a Malay heritage and similar languages. Each island retained its own unique culture, though they were frequently contacted by Chinese and Indian traders.
III. Asia:R. The Formation of States

Ayutthaya, Thailand

Pagan, Burma

iii asia s society and culture

Southeast Asian society was heavily stratified. At the top of the hierarchy were aristocratic landlords. They lived in palaces and manors in the larger cities and controlled the central government.

  • The majority of the population lived in small villages in the countryside. They made a living through rice agriculture, fishing or small-scale trade. Most paid heavy taxes or rents and barely had enough to eat.
  • As with government and religion, much of Southeast Asian architecture is influenced by either Indian or Chinese styles. The great temple complex at Angkor Watin Cambodia is a combination of Indian forms with local inspirations.
III. Asia:S. Society and Culture

Vietnamese rice paddy

Angkor Wat

iii asia homework

Answer each question in a half-page response with complete sentences. Be accurate, be specific, be complete. Due tomorrow.

  • 1. What reforms did the emperors of the Tang Dynasty enact? What internal problems were they trying to solve? (Pgs. 103-104)
  • 2. Why were Japanese emperors unable to maintain a central government? What happened to the position of emperor as a result? (Pgs. 107-108)
  • 3. How did the development of the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago differ from development elsewhere in Southeast Asia? (Pgs. 110-111)
III. Asia:Homework
iv europe and byzantium a germanic kingdoms

After the fall of the western Roman Empire in AD 476, Europe broke up into a dozen or so minor kingdoms. These states were united to one another in three ways: They were all Germanic, they all shared some of the cultural tradition of the Roman Empire, and after a period of time, they were all Christian.

  • These states developed over the medieval period, or Middle Ages, which lasted from AD 500 to 1500.
  • Of these early medieval states, the only one which lasted was the Frankish Kingdom of France and western Germany. Founded around AD 500 by Clovis, the Merovingian dynasty ruled until AD 768 and managed to repel the Muslim invasion of the Pyrenees Mountains at the Battle of Tours (AD 732).
IV. Europe and Byzantium:A. Germanic Kingdoms

Clovis I

iv europe and byzantium b the christian church

After Theodosius the Great (AD 378-395) declared that Christianity was the official religion of the Roman Empire, the Church rapidly expanded its influence and organization throughout Europe. When the Empire collapsed 100 years later, the Church was left to preserve civilization.

  • Small Christian communities, called parishes, were led by priests. Several parishes were gathered together in a diocese, under the leadership of a bishop. Over the first 300 years of Church history, the bishop of Rome asserted his authority over the western Church, and was eventually recognized as the Pope (Latin “papa” = “father”).
  • A later development in Church organization was the development of monasticism, or communities of monks (and later nuns). Monks served as copyists, teachers and healers.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:B. The Christian Church

Pope Sylvester I

Benedictine copyists

iv europe and byzantium c charlemagne

In AD 768, a new ruler known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great) took over the Frankish Kingdom. He was a patron of the arts and a devout Christian.

  • Charlemagne expanded his kingdom into Germany, Holland and Italy. He established the Carolingian Empire and, on Christmas day AD 800, he had the Pope crown him as the first Holy Roman Emperor.
  • The three themes of Western civilization (Germanic kingship, Roman heritage and Christianity) were brought together under Charlemagne. These themes were emulated by every other ruler in Europe for 1200 years.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:C. Charlemagne

Charlemagne

iv europe and byzantium d feudalism

When Charlemagne died in AD 814, his empire passed to his son, Louis the Pious. Upon his death in AD 840, the empire was split between his three sons: Lothair I, Louis the German and Charles the Bald. These three spent their reigns fighting with one another.

  • The Empire, and Europe in general, was so divided and weak that there was virtually no resistance when the Vikings began to raid in the eighth and ninth centuries. The Vikings were Germanic peoples from Norway, Sweden and Denmark who made a living by pillaging cities and churches . Their raids were so terrifying and destructive that a ninth-century Catholic hymnal included the prayer, “Protect us, O Lord, from the wrath of the Northmen.”
  • While emperors and kings were powerless to defend against the Vikings, people turned to local lords for safety. In exchange for military protection, these lords required taxes and other obligations. This established the socio-economic system known as feudalism.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:D. Feudalism
iv europe and byzantium e knights and vassals

The Germanic concept of vassalage was an oath sworn by a warrior to his leader. He promised to be loyal and to fight for his lord, and in exchange the lord would provide for his warriors economically.

  • Armor, weapons and war horses were expensive. As time passed, military technology improved and became even more expensive. A feudal lord would grant his warriors land so that they would have an income and be able to afford the best gear. Land ownership was the basis of the lord’s power and the key to the feudal system.
  • By the 800s AD, military tactics and technological advancements had transformed barbarian warriors into medieval knights. They wore coats of chainmail and plate armor. They fought with sword, shield and lance from atop specially bred war horses. Until AD 1485, these knights dominated warfare in Europe.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:E. Knights and Vassals
iv europe and byzantium f the feudal contract

The relationship between a lord and his vassal was governed by a system of largely unwritten rules, called the feudal contract. In this agreement, the lord provided prestige, land and other economic support in exchange for the vassal’s military service for 40 or so days per year.

  • As central political authority eroded in the ninth century AD, the only system of law and defense left was the local lord and his warrior entourage (his comitatus). A lord was technically the vassal of a king or emperor, who had granted him his lands in the first place, but in practical terms a lord was a law unto himself.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:F. The Feudal Contract

William, Duke of Normandy

iv europe and byzantium g england

Under the Anglo-Saxon kings of England, monarchy continued to be a weak institution. But in AD 1066, the Duke of Normandy, William the Conqueror, defeated Harold II at the Battle of Hastings and took the throne for himself.He and the other early Norman kings of England established a strong central government.

  • Henry II (AD 1154-1189) expanded royal authority over the legal system, created new courts of law, and oversaw the formation of the English Common Law.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:G. England

William the Conqueror

Henry II

The Battle of Hastings

iv europe and byzantium g england1

English nobles resented the expansion of royal authority in the eleventh century AD. In 1215, King John pressed his nobles too far when he raised taxes and attempted to seize private lands. At a field called Runnymede, a group of rebellious barons forced John to sign Magna Carta. He tried to break the contract the following year.

  • Magna Cartais a document that legally recognized the lords’ rights to property and access to justice. By the fourteenth century, it had been reinterpreted to apply to all citizens.
  • In the reign of Edward I (AD 1272-1307), Magna Carta was used to establish the English Parliament, a council of great lords who make laws, collect taxes and advise the king. Eventually, the council was reorganized into the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:G. England

Magna Carta

Parliament in the 1600s

iv europe and byzantium h france

The Carolingian Empire fell apart with the death of Louis the Pious in AD 843. The western section became the Kingdom of the Franks, and later France. In AD 987, the people of France chose as their king a lord named Hugh Capet, who established the Capetian Dynasty.

  • The Capetian kings (ruled AD 987-1328) held direct control over the area of Paris only, while powerful barons ruled the rest of the country as independent fiefs.
  • Philip II Augustus (AD 1180-1223) waged a series of successful wars against the English and their holdings in France. He greatly increased the size of the monarch’s domain and the power of the king over the nation. By the beginning of the fourteenth century, France was the largest and best-run monarchy in Europe.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:H. France

The first Capetian monarchs

iv europe and byzantium i the holy roman empire

The eastern third of Charlemagne’s empire, modern-day Germany, came under the control of the powerful Dukes of Saxony in the 900s AD. In recognition for protecting the Pope, Duke Otto I was made Emperor of the Romans (Holy Roman Emperor) in AD 962.

  • The emperors Frederick I (Barbarossa, AD 1155-1190) and Frederick II (AD 1220-1250) attempted to gain control of Italy as well as Germany. They were opposed by the popes, and the two sides struggled for control of the region for hundreds of years.
  • While the emperors were occupied in Italy, the German barons split off and established their own semi-independent domains.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:I. The Holy Roman Empire
iv europe and byzantium homework

Answer each question in a half-page response with complete sentences. Be accurate, be specific, be complete. Due tomorrow.

  • 1. What was the significance of Charlemagne’s coronation as Holy Roman Emperor? How did it unify the themes of medieval Europe? (Pgs. 117-118)
  • 2. What social and political conditions led to the establishment of feudalism? (Pgs. 118-119)
  • 3. Describe how English kings William the Conqueror, Henry II and John contributed to the development of the medieval state. (Pgs. 119-120)
IV. Europe and Byzantium:Homework
iv europe and byzantium j the slavic nations

The Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe organized themselves into three separate groups: the Western Slavs (Poles, Czechs), the Southern Slavs (Croats, Serbs, Bulgarians), and the Eastern Slavs (Romanians, Ukrainians, Russians). The Poles, Czechs, Croats and the non-Slavic Hungarians all became Catholic, while the rest followed the Eastern Orthodox Church of Byzantium.

  • Swedish Vikings settled in Russia and the Ukraine starting in the 800s AD. In the tenth century, a leader named Oleg established a base at Kiev, from which he and his successors dominated the Eastern Slavs. The KievanRus ruled over the territory between the Baltic and Black seas and the Volga and Danube rivers.
  • The Kingdom of Kiev was beset by civil wars. In AD 1169, the Mongols invaded and occupied Russia for the next 300 years. They elevated a local lord, Alexander Nevskyof Novgorod, to be Grand Prince. His family ruled Russia for the Mongols.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:J. The Slavic Nations
iv europe and byzantium k the byzantine empire

The Eastern Roman Empire, centered on Constantinople, did not fall to the barbarians in the fifth century AD. It survived as the Byzantine Empire, and under Emperor Justinian I (AD 527-565), it reconquered much of the western half as well.

  • Justinian’s military conquests did not last long after his death. His major contribution was the simplification of Roman legal practice into The Body of Civil Law.
  • Under pressure from Arab attacks, the Byzantine Empire shrank until, in the early 800s AD, all that remained was Asia Minor and the Balkans. Within the empire, the common language was Greek and the common faith was Orthodox Christianity.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:K. The Byzantine Empire

Justinian, military & religious advisers

iv europe and byzantium l conflicts and problems

In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the Byzantine Empire was ruled by a family of dynamic, aggressive emperors called the Macedonians (ruled AD 867-1081). By AD 1025, they had regained much of their lost territory.

  • Expansion brought the Byzantines into conflict with the Seljuk Turks in eastern Asia Minor. The two fought the Battle of Manzikert in AD 1071, where the Byzantines were badly beaten. Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote to the nations of Western Europe, asking for help against the Turks.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:L. Conflicts and Problems

Pope Urban II

Alexius Comnenus

Battle of Manzikert

iv europe and byzantium m the crusades

Pope Urban II (AD 1088-1099) responded to Alexius Comnenus’s plea for help by organizing the First Crusade (1096-1099), a vast military expedition to save Constantinople from the Turks and liberate Jerusalem. Urban’s plan was to simultaneously unify the Christians of Europe behind a single cause and give the warring lords something else to do with their soldiers.

  • The First Crusade was composed largely of Norman knights from France and southern Italy, with some German forces and commoners as well. The leaders of the various factions did not get along well and the armies were disorganized.
  • Instead of saving Constantinople, they marched on the Holy Land and besieged the cities of Nicaea, Antioch and Jerusalem. The Turks were unprepared for war, and the cities fell one by one. When Jerusalem was captured, the Christians established a kingdom there under Godfrey of Lorraine.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:M. The Crusades

Siege of Jerusalem

Godfrey of Lorraine

iv europe and byzantium m the crusades1

Richard the Lionheart

  • The gains of the First Crusade did not last long. The Christian kingdoms were surrounded by Muslim states, and in AD 1187, Sultan Salah al-Din (Saladin) of Egypt reconquered the region.
  • Over the next 100 years, eight more Crusades were launched. The Third Crusade (AD 1189-1192), led by King Richard the Lionheart of England, managed to assault Jerusalem but not capture it. The Fourth (AD 1202-1204) was just a Byzantine coup backed by the Venetians. The Eighth (AD 1270) was defeated by uncommonly hot weather in North Africa.
  • One unofficial campaign in AD 1212 (the Children’s Crusade) saw thousands of German teenagers die of cold crossing the Alps. Those who survived and made it to Marseilles were sold into slavery.
  • By AD 1272, Christian kings and popes had given up on reconquering the Holy Land. The Crusades were a devastating time for both Europe and the Middle East, but the cultural contact that was made enriched both civilizations.
IV. Europe and Byzantium:M. The Crusades

Saladin the Magnificent