Chapter Five: Ancient Civilizations of India and China ______ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Chapter Five:Ancient Civilizations of India and China______

  2. Indian Civilization • The Indus River Valley Civilization • Harappa and Mohenjo-daro • Agriculture-based society (cotton) • Centralization • Ecological disasters • Aryan invasions

  3. The Aryans • Indus Valley settlements c. 1500 B.C.E. • Uncertain origins • Sanskrit • Caste System • Agricultural / Pastoral Culture • Tribal structure • Epics: Ramayana, Mahabharata

  4. Aryan Philosophy • Complex, precise ceremonies and rituals • The Vedas (Rig Veda) • Core text of Hindu temple worship

  5. Hinduism • Priest and temple + meditation and study • Puja • Path to ultimate reality, Brahman • Path of Asceticism • Path of Karma • Path of Devotion (bhakti)

  6. Buddha • Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 B.C.E.) • Inescapability of suffering and death • “Enlightened One” • Fourfold Noble Path • Eightfold Path • Emphasis on ethical, moderate living • Liberation through knowledge • Truth lies within

  7. Emperor Ashoka • Unified all of India • Buddhism as state religion • Doctrine of Non-violence • Buddhist monks as missionaries

  8. [Image 5.3] Lion capital

  9. Hindu Art Religious in spirit Eroticism Naturalism Unity in all life forms Avatars Buddhist Art Focus on spirituality Calm, transcendent images Buddha, Bodhisattvas Renunciation of worldly pleasures Hindu and Buddhist Art

  10. The Gupta Empire and Its Aftermath • Chandra Gupta II (ruled 380-415) • “The Sun of Power” • Decline of Buddhism, rise of Hinduism • Gupta Literature • Kalidasa’s Sakuntala

  11. The Gupta Empire and Its Aftermath • Gupta Science • Foundation of large universities • Mechanics, medicine, mathematics • Collapse of Gupta Rule • The White Huns • Religion vs. Secular Politics

  12. Origins of Civilization in China • Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 B.C.E.) • Bronze craftsmanship • Trade, commerce • System of writing • Chou Dynasty (1100-221 B.C.E.) • Emperors coordinated separate kingdoms • Period of the Warring States (403-221 B.C.E.)

  13. Origins of Civilization in China • Confucianism • Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) • Creating a new, virtuous social order • Five inner virtues, two outer virtues • Purpose of the State • Authority and discipline

  14. Origins of Civilization in China • Taoism • Lao Tzu (570 B.C.E.) • Limitations of human perceptions • “the Way” (tao) • Passivity and resignation • “the soft yield of water cleaves the obstinate stone”

  15. The Unification of China • Ch’in Dynasty (221 B.C.E.) • Shih Huang-ti, “First Emperor” • Hsien-yang, captial city • Centralization • Burning of the Books • The Great Wall • The Emperor’s tomb

  16. The Unification of China • The Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E. - C.E. 202) • Aristocratic feuds / civil war • T’ang Dynasty (C.E. 618-906) • China’s Golden Age

  17. The Arts in Classical China:Literature • The Five Classics • Popularity of poetry • Li Po (C.E. 701-762) • Philosophical writing • Mahayana, Hinayana Buddhism • Short story

  18. The Arts in Classical China:Visual Arts • Blend of new and traditional styles • Direct impressions of daily life • Shrines, monumental carvings • Emphasis on craftsmanship • Precision and clarity of design • Calligraphy • Emphasis on beauty of line

  19. Chapter Five: Discussion Questions • In what ways does the classical art of China reflect the values of the major philosophical schools of the time? Explain, citing specific examples of art. • To what extent does literature serve as both an impediment of and a vehicle for reigning governments? Consider the use of literature during the various Chinese dynasties in comparison with the role of literature in the early Greek and Roman cultures. • Explain the difference between Buddhism as it first emerged in India from the Hindu tradition versus the Buddhism practiced in China. To what can we attribute these differences?