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Chapter Five: Ancient Civilizations of India and China ______ Indian Civilization The Indus River Valley Civilization Harappa and Mohenjo-daro Agriculture-based society (cotton) Centralization Ecological disasters Aryan invasions The Aryans Indus Valley settlements c. 1500 B.C.E.

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indian civilization
Indian Civilization
  • The Indus River Valley Civilization
    • Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
    • Agriculture-based society (cotton)
    • Centralization
    • Ecological disasters
    • Aryan invasions
the aryans
The Aryans
  • Indus Valley settlements c. 1500 B.C.E.
  • Uncertain origins
  • Sanskrit
  • Caste System
  • Agricultural / Pastoral Culture
  • Tribal structure
  • Epics: Ramayana, Mahabharata
aryan philosophy
Aryan Philosophy
  • Complex, precise ceremonies and rituals
  • The Vedas (Rig Veda)
    • Core text of Hindu temple worship
hinduism
Hinduism
  • Priest and temple + meditation and study
    • Puja
  • Path to ultimate reality, Brahman
    • Path of Asceticism
    • Path of Karma
    • Path of Devotion (bhakti)
buddha
Buddha
  • Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 B.C.E.)
    • Inescapability of suffering and death
    • “Enlightened One”
  • Fourfold Noble Path
    • Eightfold Path
    • Emphasis on ethical, moderate living
  • Liberation through knowledge
    • Truth lies within
emperor ashoka
Emperor Ashoka
  • Unified all of India
  • Buddhism as state religion
    • Doctrine of Non-violence
  • Buddhist monks as missionaries
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[Image 5.3]

Lion capital

hindu and buddhist art
Hindu Art

Religious in spirit

Eroticism

Naturalism

Unity in all life forms

Avatars

Buddhist Art

Focus on spirituality

Calm, transcendent images

Buddha, Bodhisattvas

Renunciation of worldly pleasures

Hindu and Buddhist Art
the gupta empire and its aftermath
The Gupta Empire and Its Aftermath
  • Chandra Gupta II (ruled 380-415)
    • “The Sun of Power”
    • Decline of Buddhism, rise of Hinduism
  • Gupta Literature
    • Kalidasa’s Sakuntala
the gupta empire and its aftermath16
The Gupta Empire and Its Aftermath
  • Gupta Science
    • Foundation of large universities
    • Mechanics, medicine, mathematics
  • Collapse of Gupta Rule
    • The White Huns
    • Religion vs. Secular Politics
origins of civilization in china
Origins of Civilization in China
  • Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 B.C.E.)
    • Bronze craftsmanship
    • Trade, commerce
    • System of writing
  • Chou Dynasty (1100-221 B.C.E.)
    • Emperors coordinated separate kingdoms
    • Period of the Warring States (403-221 B.C.E.)
origins of civilization in china19
Origins of Civilization in China
  • Confucianism
    • Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.)
    • Creating a new, virtuous social order
    • Five inner virtues, two outer virtues
    • Purpose of the State
    • Authority and discipline
origins of civilization in china20
Origins of Civilization in China
  • Taoism
    • Lao Tzu (570 B.C.E.)
    • Limitations of human perceptions
    • “the Way” (tao)
    • Passivity and resignation
    • “the soft yield of water cleaves the obstinate stone”
the unification of china
The Unification of China
  • Ch’in Dynasty (221 B.C.E.)
    • Shih Huang-ti, “First Emperor”
    • Hsien-yang, captial city
    • Centralization
    • Burning of the Books
    • The Great Wall
    • The Emperor’s tomb
the unification of china24
The Unification of China
  • The Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E. - C.E. 202)
  • Aristocratic feuds / civil war
  • T’ang Dynasty (C.E. 618-906)
    • China’s Golden Age
the arts in classical china literature
The Arts in Classical China:Literature
  • The Five Classics
  • Popularity of poetry
    • Li Po (C.E. 701-762)
  • Philosophical writing
    • Mahayana, Hinayana Buddhism
  • Short story
the arts in classical china visual arts
The Arts in Classical China:Visual Arts
  • Blend of new and traditional styles
  • Direct impressions of daily life
  • Shrines, monumental carvings
  • Emphasis on craftsmanship
    • Precision and clarity of design
  • Calligraphy
    • Emphasis on beauty of line
chapter five discussion questions
Chapter Five: Discussion Questions
  • In what ways does the classical art of China reflect the values of the major philosophical schools of the time? Explain, citing specific examples of art.
  • To what extent does literature serve as both an impediment of and a vehicle for reigning governments? Consider the use of literature during the various Chinese dynasties in comparison with the role of literature in the early Greek and Roman cultures.
  • Explain the difference between Buddhism as it first emerged in India from the Hindu tradition versus the Buddhism practiced in China. To what can we attribute these differences?