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AR1U130 Test Environment

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  1. AR1U130 Test Environment Are you ready? Do you have the lecture paper and your answering form? Did you fill in your name, student number and email-adress?

  2. 1Accomodation can be defined in useful opposition to adaptation as

  3. 2Design, empirical research, policy and art operate in different 'modes'. These activities determine respectively what is

  4. 3Inorganic, energetic, mechanical, information, potential factorsdistinguish different kinds of environmental

  5. 4Quality standards are applied to

  6. 5The ‘standstill’ principle concerns

  7. 6‘Most practicable means’ concern

  8. 7‘No effect’ and ‘No adverse effect’ concern

  9. 8‘No effect’ compared to ‘No adverse effect’ and 'Best practical means' compared to 'Best technical means' concern standards respectively

  10. 9A numerical standard of average % of oxygen in the water concerns

  11. 10Emissions of an area can be estimated by multiplying their production per inhabitant km2 or job in

  12. 11The largest amount of combustion emissions consists of

  13. 12Nitrogen in complex mixtures is measured by

  14. 13 The European standard from 1st of January 2005 for particulate matter is

  15. 14The kind of emission most predictable, distance-sensitive and controllable within the framework of spatial planning is

  16. 15The ‘troposphere’ ranges

  17. 16A stable atmosphere with accumulating air pollution occurs aftera number of

  18. 17The individual chance of dying per annum caused by the totality of environmental risks to human beings accepted by Dutch government and the maximal acceptable level for each single activity or substance are respectively

  19. 18A general environmental target value (streefwaarde) in the Netherlands is

  20. 19An economic optimum of environmental quality could be determinded by

  21. 20The strictness of environmental standards mainly varies with the area they apply

  22. Sun wind water earth life living environment legends for designAR1U130 SUET 4ECTS Taeke M. de Jong C. van den Akker Ir. D. de Bruin Drs. M.J. Moens C.M. Steenbergen Ir. M.W.M. van den Toorn >education

  23. Publish on your website: AR1U130 how you could take environment into account in your • earlier and • future work. As soon as you are ready with all subjects (Sun, Wind, Water, Earth, Life, Living, Traffic, Legends), send a messageto referring your web adress, student number and code AR1U130 or AR0112.

  24. Definitions of environment

  25. 18 kinds of technical environments Environment is the set conditions for life

  26. World population

  27. Agricultural surface

  28. Agricultural surface/person

  29. Yield per hectare

  30. Climate change

  31. ENVIRONMENT • Definition of environment • Doom lecture • Sources • Emission • Transmission • Immission and exposition • Creating standards • Environmental policy • Environmental data • Critical remarks

  32. Chains of impacts

  33. Sources

  34. Emissions

  35. Exposure

  36. Dose-impact relationof SO2 on a range of metal constructions in the Netherlands (1978) 9 y = 0.0015x 1.887 8 R 2 = 0.9968 7 6 5 Euro damage per inhabitant per year 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 kg SO2/inhabitant

  37. Dose-impact relationon organisms

  38. Toxicology

  39. Costs of damage and quality

  40. Environmental standards STANDARDS, applied to: the source the emission the dispersing medium the object product standards emission standards quality standards exposure and immission processing standards emission ceilings standards EXAMPLES OF NON-NUMERICAL STANDARDS (‘Policy starting-points’) ‘Avoiding at the source’ (of ‘Combating at the source’ ‘standstill’ principle ‘no effect’ the emission) (of the emission) ‘Best technical means’ ‘no adverse effect’ ‘Most practical means’ EXAMPLES OF NUMERICAL STANDARDS Lead content of petrol max. 99.2 metric ton CO average % of oxygen in the waters EPEL value 2 per year in the Netherlands Main strategy: from impact into source directed standards

  41. Remaining impact-orientated policy Zoning Heritages from the past Source directed measures not in time Being prepared on disasters Possible shortcomings of source directed measures

  42. Zones around activities

  43. Zones around installations

  44. Target and intervention values

  45. Pollutants with priority

  46. From impact-into source-oriented policy

  47. Targets:1% of maximally acceptable

  48. National environmental policy Core aim: The preservation of carrying capacity for the benefit of ‘sustainable development’. (A development meeting the needs of the current generation without endangering the possibility of future generations to meet their needs.)

  49. Environmental problems GLOBAL Ozone layer Climate change REGIONAL Accumulation Overfertilization Pesticides Heavy metals Removal Soil pollution Drying out CONTINENTAL Cross-border air pollution Ozone onlow level Acidification Wintersmog Heavy metals FLUVIAL Rivers Regional waters Salt waters Waterbottoms LOCAL Noise nuisance Smell nuisance Air pollution in the city Interior environment

  50. Elaboration targets into standards Global Continental Conditions Fluvial Values RegionalTargets LocalStandards