7-2.1, 7-2.2 Enlightenment and Governments • Limited Government • Unlimited Government • Divine Right • Absolutism • Constitutional Monarchy • Revolution • Heliocentric Theory • Reason • Excommunication • Scientific Method Find Definitions on pages 61-66 and 91-95 Reason – The use of scientific and logical thinking, to draw conclusions about society.
Types of Governments Standard 7-2.1
1. Unlimited Government • European leaders believed that an absolute monarchy with unlimited power would unify a nation and make it stronger. • European monarchs believed their power came directly from God. This made them answer only to god. (Divine Right)
2. Limited Governments • Some people wanted a limited government, one where power is restricted by the people. • This is the basis of American Democracy.
3. Countries and their Governments • France and Russia both ruled through a monarchy, this gave them absolute power. • They limited freedoms by: Raising Taxes, Removing Parliament, and using the military to enforce their policies • England’s King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215, this made the king responsible under the law.
The Scientific Revolution Standard: 7-2.2 http://www.history.com/shows/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us/videos/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us-scientific-revolution
1. Scientific Revolution • In the 1500s, thinkers started gathering knowledge based on observation, experiments, and mathematics. • Their findings began a revolution in Science
2. Astronomy • An Egyptian astronomer named Ptolemy started the Geocentric theory or “Earth” at the center of the universe. • The Catholic Church supported this theory. • It became heresy to say anything different about the State of the Universe
3. Nicolaus Copernicus • Copernicus came up with the idea of a Heliocentric theory or sun at the center of the universe. • He realized that his ideas would cause a lot of conflict with the Catholic Church. • He kept his work a secret until the end of his life out of fear of the church.
4. Galileo Galilei • Challenged many of the old beliefs and proved that Copernicus was right. • Built a new telescope and with it found a lot of new information on our sun. • Arrested and tried by Catholic church for heresy • He was forced to take back many of his ideas.
5. Isaac Newton • Newton used reason and the scientific method to discover several laws that are still used today. • Principles of Light – Prism • Laws of gravity • Invented a new math called calculus.