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Raytheon Seekers. Infrared Seeker Calibration Mechanism. Raytheon Seekers. Aaron Scrignar……Team Leader Eric Draves………..Historian Trevor Moody…….Web Page Des., Mediator Stacy Davison……..Document Coord., Financial Officer LaTanya Williams…Communicator. Presentation Outline.

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raytheon seekers
Raytheon Seekers

Infrared Seeker Calibration Mechanism

Raytheon Seekers

raytheon seekers1
Raytheon Seekers

Aaron Scrignar……Team Leader

Eric Draves………..Historian

Trevor Moody…….Web Page Des., Mediator

Stacy Davison……..Document Coord., Financial Officer

LaTanya Williams…Communicator

Raytheon Seekers

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Client Description
  • Problem Definition
  • What is Infrared Imaging?
  • Project Requirements
  • Design Method
  • Prototype Design
  • Analysis Process
  • Project Spending
  • Time Log
  • Conclusion

Raytheon Seekers

more about
More about…


  • One of the largest defense electronics contractors in the world. Leader in defense electronics, including:
    • Missiles; Radar, Sensors and Electro-Optics
    • Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)
    • Missile Defense
  • Chairman & CEO: Daniel P. Burnham
  • 2002 Revenue
    • $16.8 Billion
    • 62% of sales to U.S. Department of Defense
  • 79,000 employees worldwide
  • Headquarters located in Lexington, MA

Raytheon Seekers

client contact
Client Contact
  • Brian Scott
    • B.S.E. in Mechanical Engineering at NAU
    • M.S. in Mechanical Engineering at UofA
    • Employee of Raytheon since graduation
      • Missile Systems – Future Combat Systems
      • Tucson, Arizona

Raytheon Seekers

problem statement
Problem Statement

A preliminary design and a proof-of-principal prototype are needed for a window positioning system to be used in a tank-launched projectile. The device must position a small germanium window into an infrared sensor’s optical path to perform Non-Uniformity Compensation.

Raytheon Seekers

project requirements
Project Requirements

NUC Mechanism must:

  • Survive 10KG launch acceleration normal to the window face
  • Packaged in 0.235” thick by 2.89” diameter cylinder, excluding electronics
  • Move a 0.50” x 0.44” x 0.04” thick Germanium lens to cover a photocell array
  • Require less than 24 Watts at a maximum of 24 Vdc for less than 1 second
  • Move lens in and out of the field of the array in less than 1 second, and remain in position for 1 second

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what is infrared imaging
Light at frequencies below visible red are considered infrared

All objects emit infrared energy at ordinary temperatures

Objects with higher temperatures emit more infrared energy

What Is Infrared Imaging

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infrared seeker operation
Infrared Seeker Operation
  • Modern “Heat Seekers”:
    • Employ advanced infrared sensor arrays
    • Utilize computer programs to select, target, and guide munitions towards specific images

Raytheon Seekers

non uniformity compensation nuc
Non-Uniformity Compensation (NUC)

NUC is necessary to adjust for different pixel sensitivities which could cause erroneous targeting by seeker computer

Germanium Lens Moved in Front of IR Array

Raw IR Image before NUC

Blurred IR Image with Lens in Position

Raytheon Seekers

non uniformity compensation nuc1
Non-Uniformity Compensation (NUC)

Computer algorithm adjusts gain factors of individual pixels so that a uniform image results from a uniform scene


Germanium Lens Moved

Out of Position

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seeker head layout
Seeker Head Layout

Raytheon Seekers

rail gun test
Rail Gun Test
  • 155mm Howitzer fires projectile into water filled trough to provide firing conditions and “soft catch capability

Raytheon Seekers

acceleration definition
Acceleration Definition
  • Launch Conditions
    • Set Back 10,000G
    • Set Forward 2,000G
    • Lateral Balloting 3,300G
  • Flight Conditions
    • Lateral: 0-3G
    • Vibration: 5G

Set Forward

Set Back

Lateral Balloting

Raytheon Seekers

scope of design constraints
Scope of Design Constraints
  • One quarter subjected to 10,000 G’s weighs

approximately 120 lbs.

  • The restricted thickness of the available volume is less than ¼ of an inch

Raytheon Seekers

design philosophy
Design Philosophy
  • K.I.S.S.
    • Minimize complexity of the design to reduce probability of failure
  • Keep close contact with client
    • Bring attention to potential design problems before it’s too late

Raytheon Seekers

design process
Design Process
  • Brainstorming - Mechanism ideas
  • Mechanism Selection - Based on size constraints
  • Modeling - Cardboard & CAD models to assess geometries
  • Analysis - Hand calculations, Adams, COSMOS/M
  • Fabricate Prototype – CNC

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final design
Final Design
  • Frame
  • Solenoid
  • Positioning Arm
  • Pin
  • Bushing
  • Return Spring

Raytheon Seekers

frame design
Frame Design
  • Frame supports components and other seeker optics
    • Modified to eliminate unnecessary weight
    • Recessed regions for return spring and counterweight clearance

Raytheon Seekers

frame design1
Frame Design
  • Frame
    • 6061-T6 Aluminum
    • Sult = 45 ksi
    • CNC work done by R&D Specialty Manco
    • Phoenix, Arizona
selected solenoid
Selected Solenoid
  • 3 VDC pulling solenoid
    • Electro Mechanisms, Inc
    • Commercially available PO-25
    • Fits within required dimensions
    • Provides minimum of 2 oz. of force at 3X nominal voltage (18 Watts)

Raytheon Seekers

positioning arm
Positioning Arm
  • Positioning Arm
    • 7075-T6 Aluminum
    • Sult = 82.7 ksi
  • Bushing
    • Oilite Bronze - Oil Impregnated
    • Self Lubricating Bushing
  • Pin
    • AISI 4130 Steel
    • Sult = 106 ksi
pin connection design
Pin Connection Design

Press Fit Withstands 120lb Vertical Force

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analysis justification
Analysis Justification
  • Deformation of surfaces are within tolerances defined by the optical engineer
  • Deformation of support structure for optics is within tolerance and creates no interference
    • No yielding through cross section of part
  • No ultimate failures occur

Raytheon Seekers

analysis focus
Analysis Focus
  • Static Analysis
    • Pin joint withstands launch accelerations
    • Arm deflection does not produce ultimate failure
  • Dynamic Analysis
    • Solenoid and spring actuation times
    • Verification of solenoid adequacy

Raytheon Seekers

finite element analysis
Finite Element Analysis
    • 3-D 20 Noded Quadrilateral Elements
    • Body (Acceleration) Load
  • Modeled Positioning Arm & Components
    • 7075-T6 Al Arm
    • Germanium Lens
    • Oilite Brass Bushing
    • Tungsten Counterweight
  • Material properties specified for each component

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von mises stress plot
Von Mises Stress Plot

smax = 80.3 ksi

F.S. = 1.03

Does Not Yield Through Cross-Section

Raytheon Seekers

dynamic analysis
Adams software used for dynamic analysis w.r.t. arm rotation

Employed actual solenoid force function curve and spring force

Analysis Performed:

Actuation & return times

Forces due to snubbing of arm rotation

Verification of solenoid strength sufficiency over entire actuation distance

Dynamic Analysis

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prototype cost
Prototype Cost

Cost Per Unit $ 341.96

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total project spending
Total Project Spending

Raytheon Seekers

project budget
Project Budget
  • Provided Funds by Raytheon
    • $ 3,000
  • Total Project Spending
    • $ 1,906
  • Donation to the College of Engineering & Technology
    • $ 1,094

Raytheon Seekers

time log
Time Log

Total Project Hours for Spring Semester 684.5 hrs

Avg. Hours Per Team Member: 136.9 hrs

Raytheon Seekers

  • The balanced swing arm design is simple and efficient in providing the required lens motion while withstanding the environmental constraints
  • A prototype that meets project specifications will be delivered to Raytheon on time and within budget

Raytheon Seekers

  • Brian Scott
    • Raytheon Missile Systems
  • Dr. Ernesto Penado, Advisor
  • Dr. David E. Hartman, P.E.
  • Dr. John Tester
  • NAU Machine Shop
    • Don McCallum, Daniel, & Rus

Raytheon Seekers