Making the Peace Chapter 14 Section 4
The Cost of War • In the end, 8.5 million people were dead. Double that number were wounded and handicapped. • By 1918, the world was hit by a deadly pandemic of influenza. A pandemic is the spread of disease across an entire country, continent, or even the world. • In just a few months, the flu killed 20 million people around the world. • Most of the land from France to Russia was shelled into rubble. The cost of the war was staggering. The Allies blamed their defeated foes, and insisted that they pay reparations, or payments for war damages. • This stunned the Central Powers, who saw the armistice as a cease-fire and not a surrender. • Armistice, an agreement to end fighting.
Political Turmoil • Under the stress of war, governments collapsed in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire. • Unrest swept through Europe’s colonial empires. African and Asian soldiers discovered that the imperial powers were not a invincible as the seemed. • Colonial troops began to gain renewed hope for independence.
Paris Peace Conference • The Big Three- The Allied leaders who controlled the peace conference. • The United States- Woodrow Wilson • Great Britain- David Lloyd George (Prime Minister) • France- Georges Clemenceau Both Britain and France demanded harsh treatment against Germany. Wilson stuck to his self-determination and Fourteen Points He also believed that the League of Nations should be based on the idea of collective security, a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve peace for all.
Treaty of Versailles • Treaty of Versailles- treaty that ended World War I • 1919, peacemakers summoned representatives from the new German Republic to the palace of Versailles to sign the treaty drawn up by the Allies. • It forced Germany to assume full blame for the war. • It imposed huge reparations on Germany, crumbling their economy • Total cost of German reparations-- $30 billion. • The treaties created a system of mandates, territories administered by western powers. • Britain and France gained mandates of German colonies in Africa and Middle East.