The Civil War 1861-1865
Causes of the Civil War Long Term Trends: Sectionalism Divergent economic systems Increasing Political Division Sectional Compromise North South politics Increasing Social Divide Underlying Cause: Slavery
Northern Advantages Population (71% of nation) Much larger military (2.1 million to 800K) Much less reliance on a draft Hated controversial measure Industrial production (91%) South had few developed industries to support a war South is woefully under equipped for most of the war Infrastructure Railroads (71%) Farming (75%) Overall Wealth (75%) Able to fund the war without confiscation
Southern Advantages Defensive War North had to crush the South to win Better Generals Majority of the experienced American officers were Southerners Robert E. Lee “Stonewall” Jackson “King Cotton” South hoped to establish strong diplomatic ties to Europe (Britain) Eventually, European nation adopt a wait and see approach
Lincoln’s War Strategy Priority #1: Restore and Maintain the Union Not to end slavery Much to the disappointment of many abolitionists After Fort Sumter it is clear to Lincoln that war is the only answer Northern plan of attack Take control of the border states Lincoln suspends habeas corpus Ex parte Milligan Used military to crush rebellion NYC draft riots Blockade Southern ports Cut the South from the West along the Mississippi river Take the capital of Richmond
Should the President be allowed to “bend” the rules in time of war for the good of the nation?
Landmark Battles Bull Run Antietam (Most American die in one day 26K) Vicksburg Gettysburg (51K die in 3days) Turning point for the war South begins to fall apart mid 1863 after Vicksburg and Gettysburg
Total War on the South January 1, 1863 Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation Based on idea that slaves were war property and could be seized by Northern generals Only freed slaves in areas not controlled by the Union Meant to demoralize the South Freed blacks were recruited into the Northern army Grant decides to wage a violent frontal assault to take Richmond (Made Union commander in 1864) Massive Northern casualties (Cold Harbor 7k in an hr.) Eventually forces Lee to surrender (Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865) Meanwhile, Sherman’s “March to the Sea” Intentionally destroys Southern infrastructure Promises land to slaves (40 acres and a mule)
Civil War is the costliest in American history 620,000 vs. 318,000 in WW2
Now that the Civil War is over; what challenges now face the United States?