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Domain Eukarya. Protists. Kingdom(s?):. Themes in the Evolution of Protists. Larger Cell Size Larger cells make possible the evolution of diverse structures and functions.

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domain eukarya
Domain Eukarya

Protists

Kingdom(s?):

themes in the evolution of protists
Themes in the Evolution of Protists
  • Larger Cell Size
    • Larger cells make possible the evolution of diverse structuresand functions.
    • Compartmentalization increases the available surface area in the interior of cells, easing food & waste transport in & out of the cell.

Paramecium: a unicellular cilliate

themes in the evolution of protists3
Themes in the Evolution of Protists
  • Locomotion
    • Pseudopods
    • Protists can be motile by means of cilia or flagella.

Cilia

Flagella

2 single

microtubules

9 paired

microtubules

The structure of eukaryotic flagella and cilia is different than prokaryotic flagella

themes in the evolution of protists4
Themes in the Evolution of Protists
  • Multicellularity

Volvocales spp. range from unicellular to colonial to multicellular.

Gonium

Chlamydomonas

Pandorina

Volvox

some protists are clearly multicellular
Some protists are clearly multicellular

This green alga, called Coleochaete orbicularis, is multicellular.

Its cells are packed tightly together and are differentiated in form

and function.

themes in the evolution of protists6
Themes in the Evolution of Protists
  • Meiosis and sexual reproduction
      • Meiosis makes eukaryotic sexual reproduction possible.
sexual reproduction produces genetic variability
Sexual reproduction produces genetic variability

Fertilization

A1

A2

A2A2

or

A1A1

A1

A2

Offspring genotypes

Gametes

A1

A2

Meiosis

A1

A2

Parental

genotype

some protists may alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction
Some protists may alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction

Chlamydomonas

(n)

Gametes

(n)

(n)

(n)

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

(2n)

(n)

Mature

cell

(n)

SYNGAMY

MEIOSIS

Zygote

Haploid

Diploid

giardia lamblia a diplomonad
Giardia lamblia, a diplomonad

Giardiasis is a diarrheal illness sometimes known

as “Traveler’s Disease”

group 2 euglenozoa
Group 2: Euglenozoa
  • Typically unicellular
  • Characteristic type of flagella (1-2 flagella)
  • Autotrophic, heterotrophic, or mixotrophic

Euglena

group 2 euglenozoa others
Group 2: Euglenozoa- Others
  • Trypanosomes- Parasitic
  • Trypanosoma brucei-
  • African Sleeping Sickness
  • Carried by Tsetse flies
  • Trypanosoma cruzii-
  • Chagas disease
  • South America
  • Leishmania spp.
  • Worldwide parasites
  • Transmitted by sandflies
group 3 aveolata
Group 3:Aveolata
  • Dinoflagellates
  • Primary producers in coastal areas
  • Armored cellulose walls
  • Two whip-like flagella

Gonyaulax – red tide

group 3 aveolata14
Group 3:Aveolata
  • Apicomplexans
  • All obligate Parasites
    • Plasmodium--> malaria
  • Mass of organelles at one end (penetrate the host)
  • Spore-forming
group 3 aveolata15
Group 3:Aveolata

Paramecium

  • Ciliates
  • Cilia- short hair-like flagella used for feeding and moving
  • Oral groove
  • Multi-nucleate
  • Reproduce by fission and conjugation

Stentor

group 4 stramenopila
Group 4:Stramenopila
  • Oomycotes (water molds)
  • Fungi-like heterotrophs
  • Most live in fresh water or moist soil where they are important decomposers of plant detritus

Downy mildew

Potato Blight and the Irish Potato famine

group 4 stramenopila17
Group 4:Stramenopila
  • Diatoms
  • Glass cell walls
  • Major component of marine plankton
  • Major contributor to marine photosynthesis
  • Sediment to form diatomaceous earth
algae plant like protists
Algae: Plant-like Protists
  • Algae are AUTOTROPHIC Protists- they perform PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
  • Often called “seaweeds”= brown, red, green algae

Red: chlorophyll a and phycobilins

Green: chlorophyll a

and chlorophyll b

Brown: chlorophyll a

and chlorophyll c

algae plant like protists19
Algae: Plant-like Protists
  • Algae are Different from Plants because they LACK Tissue Differentiation and have No True Roots, Leaves or Stems.
group 5 rhodophyta
Group 5:Rhodophyta
  • Red Algae
  • No flagellated stages
  • Color from phycoerythrin
  • Often used to make cosmetics, gelatin capsules, agar
group 6 chlorophyta
Group 6:Chlorophyta
  • Green Algae
  • Not monophyletic
  • Closely related to plants
  • common ancestor of green algae and plants--> chloroplasts through endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria
  • mostly freshwater
  • Unicellular, colonial, multicellular
group 8
Group 8:????
  • Hodge-podge of organisms with unknown phylogeny
  • Use pseudopods for moving and feeding
  • Rhizopods (Amoeba)
  • Actinopods
  • Foraminifera

Phagocytosis in Amoeba

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