Learning outcome • Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behavior
To what extent do you use stereotypes? • For each of the following people identify their • occupations • sexual orientation • ethnicity
Occupation: SURFER Sexual Orientation: HETEROSEXUAL Race: CAUCASION (USA - MIAMI, FL)
Occupation: Actress Sexual Orientation: Homosexual Race: Caucasian
Occupation – businessman Sexual orientation – NG (so take a guess….) Race: Caucasian (Australian)
Occupation: model Race: African American Sexual Orientation: heterosexual
Occupation: hairdresser – turned – actress. Sexual orientation: homosexual Race: Lebanese
Occupation – soccer player Sexual orientation – Homosexual Race – Spanish.
What is a stereotype ? • Mental representations of particular shared beliefs about the characteristics (personality traits and physical characteristics) of a group and its members • They reflect fairly precise categories of social or cultural knowledge.
Is the process of stereotyping simply a natural cognitive process of social categorization? • Maybe but how does it actually happen? • On the white board write a descriptor of a stereotype.
These shared beliefs/ ideas …… • Different cultures may have different beliefs • Studies by Katz and Braly (1933) and Karlins et al (1969) show that stereotypical ideas are slow to change.
Is there a grain of truth?? • Stereotypes may be based on a ‘grain of truth’ , Campbell (1967)- there is some basis in reality ex one experience with a member of a group is generalized to the whole group. • Campbell proposes there are two sources of stereotypes - personal experience with individuals - ‘gatekeepers’- media, parents etc of a culture
Support for Campbell- ‘grain of truth’ • Ford and Stangor (1992) – traits which most objectively distinguish two groups are likely to be central to the stereotypes of the group • Participants (students- participate in study for course credit!! • Given booklets of two fictional groups- red and blue. • Descriptions = friendly, intelligent or other behaviour • Differences emphasized in each group ex blue more friendly but less intelligent. • Later asked to describe group – they were characterized in terms of differences. • Stereotypes based on differences with a ‘grain of truth’
Application task • Using your knowledge of attribution theory explain the role of attributions in stereotyping. Refer to the grain of truth idea and give a clear example to support your explanation.
Illusory correlation…. • Another view is that stereotypes are an illusion- people see a correlation between two variables even when there is non Hamilton and Gifford (1976) • Can you think of an example? • Women and math????
Hamilton & Gifford (1976) • Asked participants to read- desirable/undesirable trait adjectives of two groups • Group A (majority) =26 statements/ group B (minority) = 13 statements • Although number of statements differed, even spread of desirable/undesirable traits • After completed group memory and evaluative judgment task. • No reason to judge Group B as having more undesirable behavior, however participants did.
Wegner and Vallacher ( 1976 )-the illusory correlation is similar to the fundamental attribution error. • In the same way that other people’s behavior tends to be explained in dispositional rather than situational terms, rare/undesirable behavior can be explained by attributing it to a minority group ( McIlveen & Gross, p. 15 ). • People tend to over-estimate the association between ( ie. correlation ) between negative characteristics and minority group membership. • Ex- the proportion of African Americans versus the proportion of European Americans who commit crimes are the actually the same. Nevertheless because fewer residents of the US are African American, people may overestimate the proportion of African Americans who commit crimes relative to the proportion of European Americans who do so ( O Greene et al ).
Group A / Majority Group B / Minority • Desirable - eg. Jane, a member of Group A, visited a sick friend in the hospital. Sally, a member of Group A, visited a sick friend in the hospital. • Undesirable Roy a member of Group A always talks about himself Bill, a member of Group B always
Confirmation bias • People then to seek out or remember information that supports the illusionary relationship. • Outline the study by Snyder and Swann (1978) – Crane 109 • Complete this sentence…’ This study demonstrates the confirmation bias because……..’
Work in pairs • Using Crane 109-110 draw a flow chart which explains the formation of stereotypes. • Select a stereotype with which you are familiar. • Apply your flow chart to this stereotype. • Share your thoughts on how the process of stereotyping in your example may affect behavior.
Homework….. • Do an internet search to find a clip which reflects the effect of stereotyping. • The clip can be humorous but at the same time needs to be sensitive and ethical. • Your clip can be taken from a movie or TV series. • Links to the clip chosen to be sent to Ms Voigt’s drop box. • Please have your name and block clearly identified.
Jane Elliot’s Study – use slides 31 – 35 to identify - The Aim, procedure, results, conclusion, MCEG of the Jane Elliot study - Complete the sentence…’This study demonstrates the effects of stereotyping on behavior because….’ Method: Experimental/Observational Design: Repeated Measure Variables: Independent- Color of eyes (blue or brown) Dependent- Feeling “inferior” or “superior”
Participants -3rd grade students -male and female -9 brown eyed children -9 blue eyed children
Summary of Video (1st day) 1st day blue eyes were the superior ones they were given special privileges, and were encouraged to discriminate against the inferior brown eyed children During recess, a blue-eyed child called a brown-eyed a “brown-eyed” and they fought. A discriminatory act.
Academic performances increased for the blue-eyed, while the brown eyed decreased On the 2nd day the roles were reversed. Jane Elliot told them that the statement she said the previous day was untrue. The blue-eyed children quickly took the oppressing role and vise-versa Similar effect happened
Effects of the blue/brown eyed stereotype • Whoever was “superior”, their academic level had increased to a higher level e.g. reading level. Superior Academic level was far beyond what would normally be expected for 3rd graders Far beyond where they had performed just one week prior to the experiment Inferior • Far below what would ordinarily be expected for 3rd graders • Far below the level of performance that they had just one week prior to the experiment
Superior behaved more maturely towards teacher and amongst their “blue-eyed” group strong enthusiasm for learning better posture, grooming and attitude yet aggressive towards the “inferior” Inferior Suffered serious blows to self-image barely liked themselves, low self-esteem displayed self-disparaging attitudes cried and sulked many behaved sullen and disrespectful manner none revealed interest in learning or socializing with their classmates
Effects of Stereotyping • Untrue and unfair prejudgment and allocation of characteristics to individuals • Confirmatory bias • Exaggeration of perceived similarities within groups and differences between groups • Justification of discriminatory behavior towards stereotyped groups, based on the assessment of their supposed characteristics
Effect of stereotypes on individual's performance • Read Crane 108 and 109 • Draw conclusions regarding how stereotyping may affect an individual’s performance. • Mention the studies of Steele (1997); Steele and Aronson (1995); Spencer et al (1977) and Herrnstein (1994)
Some questions • What do you think are the main reasons behind humans use of stereotypes? • What are stereotypes based on? • What negative effects can stereotyping have on an individual? • Present one example that shows how a stereotype may be the result of an illusory correlation. • What other forms of processes could be considered an illusory correlation? • What can be concluded from Hamilton and Gifford’s study of illusionary correlation? • What have is explained in Synder & Swann’s experiment on confirmation bias?