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CHC2P Canadian History. Exam Review. WWI: Topics. General information Alliance systems Causes Assassination of Franz Ferdinand War Measures Act Life in the Trenches New technology Important Canadian Battles America entering the war The Last Hundred Days Treaty of Versailles

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wwi topics
WWI: Topics
  • General information
  • Alliance systems
  • Causes
  • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
  • War Measures Act
  • Life in the Trenches
  • New technology
  • Important Canadian Battles
  • America entering the war
  • The Last Hundred Days
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Troubles on the Homefront
  • Women’s roles
  • Conscription crisis
general information
General Information
  • Occurred between August 1914 – November 1918
  • Called the “Great War”  first time a war involved many nations across the world
  • Canada entered the war on August 4, 1914
    • Same day as Britain did  we were part of the British Commonwealth and were governed by their rules
alliance systems
Alliance Systems

Italy

France

Russia

Austria-Hungary

Triple Entente

Triple Alliance

Britain

Germany

There were two alliance systems at the beginning of the war. Other countries joined with these forces throughout the course of the war.

major causes
Major Causes

Nationalism  having pride in your own country

Arms race  trying to have the largest amount and the most powerful weaponry

Imperialism  fierce competition between nations; many imposed their rule on other countries and claimed them as their colonies

Alliance systems  countries who are willing to back one another with military support in times of conflict

assassination of franz ferdinand
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
  • June 28, 1914
    • Franz Ferdinand (Duke of Austria-Hungary) and his wife Sophie were assassinated in Sarajevo while on a tour of their new coming empire
  • Responsibility put in the hands of the Black Hand (terrorist group from Serbia)
    • GavriloPrincip charged with their killings
  • Serbia would not give up the person in charge of the crime and Austria-Hungary declared war
war measures act
War Measures Act
  • Limited the civil liberties of citizens in order to ensure support for the war
  • Passed in 1914 because the government needed to come up with funds
  • Some of the conditions were:
    • Food Board (control supplies at home), Imperial Munitions Board (quality control for weapons), censoring newspapers/media, temporary 3% tax, food rationing, savings bonds, etc.
life in the trenches
Life in the Trenches
  • Conditions
    • Diseases  trench foot, trench fever, infections, lice
    • Daily Life  ate, slept, worked in trenches
  • Layout zig-zag pattern so enemies cannot see straight downthe line if they invade
    • Reason for building them  machine guns and artillery had been developed so needed a place to protect soldiers from fire
new technology
New Technology
  • Artillery  large guns with long range
  • Machine guns  could be operated by 4 people, could fire bullets quickly
  • Planes  originally made from wood and canvas, used to photograph troop positions; later had gun mounted on them and used for fighting
  • Tanks  helped soldiers cross no-man’s land, but they were not hugely effective; improved as war went on
  • U-boats  German submarines
important canadian battles
Important Canadian Battles
  • Ypres  April 1915, Belgium; take back from Germans who wanted it for access to the sea (port town); first use of chlorine gas by the Germany; 20,000 killed, 4,000 wounded
  • The Somme  July 1916, France; cross the river to allow cavalry to break through; involved “suicide runs” into German machine gun fire; NFLD regiment took heavy losses at Beaumont Hamel; 24,000 wounded or killed
important canadian battles1
Important Canadian Battles
  • Vimy Ridge  April 1917, France; take ridge embedded with German trench lines; practiced on mock battlefield before; used “creeping barrage” technique and “leapfrogging” technique to move ahead; led by Canadian General Currie; 10,000 killed or wounded
  • Passchendaele  November 1917, Belgium; capture German trenches; huge rain storms that flooded trenches, many soldiers and horses died in mud and water; 16,000 killed or wounded
america enters the war
America Enters the War
  • Germany declares “unrestricted submarine warfare” and sinks supply ships crossing the Atlantic
    • Allies used convoys (large groups of ships with military escorts) and Q-ships (decoy military ship posing as supply ship) to try and get across safely
  • U-boats sink a U.S. passenger ship (Lustania)
  • U.S. cannot ignore the threat and enters the war in support of the Triple Entente (1917)
the last hundred days
The Last Hundred Days
  • Once Americans declare war, Germany sends troops from Eastern Front (Russia) to Western Front to try and defeat the allies before the U.S. arrives
  • Germans stopped just before Paris
  • Improvement of tanks and fresh American soldiers help allies push Germany back to borders  defeated ¼ of German army, 48 000 casualties, including 9 000 dead
  • Armistice to be signed on November 11, 1918 at 11:00am
    • Last Canadian soldier killed at 10:55am (Private Price)
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles

Signed at the Palace of Versailles in 1919; Britain, France and U.S. decided Germany’s fate

Conditions: accept blame and sign a “War Guilt Clause”, pay reparations, no submarines or air force (small navy and army allowed), Rhineland occupied by Allied troops, lost all colonies, Austria-Hungary broke up, lost land and industry as it was divided up

League of Nations formed to keep world peace

troubles on the homefront
Troubles on the Homefront

Winnipeg General Strike  1919, workers in Winnipeg went on strike to fight for better conditions/wages; ended in June when strikers took to the streets to protest the arrest of their leaders, called “Bloody Saturday” because several people were killed or wounded

Spanish flu  influenza carried back from war by soldiers; more than 20 million people worldwide died; hit small/isolated communities hard; Stanley Cup finals were even cancelled

Conscientious objectors  object to war as a matter of conscience or religious beliefs; many farming communities on Prairies didn’t want to go to war because they thought they were needed to contribute supplies; however, would fight if attacked

troubles on the homefront1
Troubles on the Homefront

Pacifists would prefer peaceful negotiations to solve problems; wouldn’t fight if attacked; often paid heavy price for not supporting war efforts

Halifax explosion  December 1916; two ships (Mont Blanc [carrying explosives] & Imo) collided in Halifax harbor caught fire and exploded; many people came out to see boats on fire and explosion killed 1600+ and wounded 9000+

Enemy aliens  people from enemy countries; given ID cards and had to report to police and some put in internment camps or deported once war broke out

women s roles
Women’s Roles
  • Received separation allowance ($20/month) to cover costs
    • Barely enough to get essentials, often had to rely on family members;
    • Charities set up to help cover additional costs  upper-middle class women often ran them, called “nosy parkers” because they would check to see if people were spending money properly
  • Did a lot of volunteering  made socks, bandages, bake sales
  • Worked in munitions factories making bombs and artillery shells
  • Administrative jobs for the military
  • Nurses at home and on the front lines; also ambulance drivers
  • Took over many jobs for the men who were gone to war
  • With the help of “suffragists” like Nellie McClung, this helped women earn the right to vote starting with Manitoba in 1916
conscription crisis of 1917
Conscription Crisis of 1917

PM Borden thought war would continue longer after meeting in 1917

Already had 1 in 16 in uniform and needed more  introduce conscription (military service required by law) to get more troops

Divided country  Quebec, farmers in Prairies, Objectors/Pacifists, Liberals all objected to it; was important because there was an election coming up and this could make or break the current government

Passed in the summer of 1917, but troops never actually saw any combat action

interwar years topics
Interwar Years: Topics
  • Immigration Boom
  • Changes in education and employment
  • Consumerism and popular culture
  • Prohibition
  • Women in politics
  • The Economy
  • The Great Depression
  • On-to-Ottawa Trek
  • The New Deal and new political parties
immigration boom
Immigration Boom

Canada was removed from the war, economy was booming (natural resources) and opportunity for a new life  Pull Factors

Wanted: people from Britain, U.S., Western Europe

Unwanted: Chinese (1923 Exclusion Act), Japanese

employment education
Employment & Education
  • Higher levels of education for everyone
    • Rural  up to gr. 8 was average
    • Urban up to end of high school was average
    • Boys and girls  gender specific courses that were geared toward typical careers
  • Employment
    • Men  most in factories (3/4), doctors, lawyers
    • Women  department stores, secretaries, clerks
consumerism popular culture
Consumerism & Popular Culture
  • Low energy costs = increased production & jobs
  • New inventions (car, radio, home appliances) were symbols of status; gave people more leisure time
    • People went into debt to buy these things!
  • New type of women was “born” flapper, dressed and acted unconventionally (smoked, danced, drove, new clothing style)
  • Prohibition also put in place
    • Banning of the sale of alcohol except for religious or medical reasons
  • We were highly influenced by American culture
    • Radios, gangs, music
women in politics
Women in Politics
  • “Famous Five” fought for women’s rights in 1920s
    • Nellie McClung was one of them
  • Went to Supreme Court in “Person’s Case” so women could legally be called people and therefore could run for Senate  won the case
the economy
The Economy
  • Stock market  many people invested in stocks with loans from brokers (buying on margin)
  • American influences  companies were opening up factories in Canada (branch plants) to avoid tariffs (taxes) for importing goods
    • Downside: smaller Canadian companies got shut down, all the profit and management went back to the U.S.
    • Upside: more jobs were being created in Canada and we had a greater variety of goods available
the great depression
The Great Depression
  • Started with the stock market crash on October 29, 1929 (“Black Tuesday”)
    • Line up to get jobs at factories
    • Stand in “bread lines” or collect relief money to get food
    • Wages cut if jobs were kept
    • Lost homes, possessions and all their money
  • Men 16 and over were forced to go into labourcamps
    • paid very little, difficult jobs, but were fed and clothed
  • There was a drought on the Prairies and farmers could barely grow any crops (Dust Bowl)
on to ottawa trek
On-To-Ottawa Trek
  • Union workers were rallying to get better working conditions
    • This was a bad time because companies didn’t have money to increase wages for workers because of the Depression
  • Unemployed people & men from labour camps went across the country by train to protest in Ottawa
  • Trains were stopped in Regina where a riot began
  • Did result in work camps being shut down
bennett s new deal
Bennett’s New Deal
  • Needed to put a plan in place to get the country our of the Depression. This included:
    • government control of industry, more jobs, cut down work week to 48 hours from 60 hours, unemployment insurance
  • Didn’t win upcoming election to put this all in place, but Liberals, who did, kept many of these provisions
new political parties
New Political Parties
  • Rural areas thought they weren’t being represented by the current parties because they were centered in large cities; made their own parties:
    • Social Credit Party prosperity certificates to increase buying power of the people ($25/month)
    • Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)  government should take over industry; unemployment insurance, free medical care, pensions, family care also part of platform
    • Union Nationale people in Quebec should have power over its own industries
wwii topics
WWII: Topics
  • Fascism, Anti-Semitism and Racism around the world
  • Hitler’s rise to power in Germany
  • Propaganda
  • Fundraising efforts on the homefront
  • Technology advancements
  • Causes of WWII
  • Battles of WWII
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki
  • The Holocaust Kristallnacht, ghettos, concentration & death camps
  • Internment of Japanese Canadians
  • Conscription
  • Women’s roles in the war
fascism anti semitism racism
Fascism, Anti-Semitism & Racism
    • Fascism: governmental system led by someone who has complete power, opposes criticism or opposition of their ways, controls industry and economy, and emphasizes extreme nationalism and racism
    • Italy, USSR & Germany  used this system
  • Hitler believed that Germans were of a higher race; blonde hair, blue eyes, slender and tall were the characteristics of the “Aryan” people
      • Named Jewish and other races who had darker features of a lesser race (anti-semitism)
      • Most other countries also discriminated against Jews
hitler s rise to power
Hitler’s Rise to Power
  • Economy after WWI was unstable and people turned to extreme parties because they had a strong message
  • Nazi Party  why were they popular?
      • Supported dictatorship
      • Wanted to stop paying reparations to other nations
      • Invest in Germany’s industries to create economic growth
      • Build up Germany’s military forces
      • End unemployment
  • Bullied people into voting for him
    • Fire at Parliament, “storm troopers” threatened people
  • When he won, disbanded Parliament as soon as they gave him permission to deal with “enemies of Germany”
    • Hitler’s word was now LAW!
propaganda
Propaganda
  • Government used posters, radio ads, newspaper articles
    • All controlled with censorship (only published what they wanted people to read about)
    • Wanted people to support the war by giving money, enlisting or volunteering
fundraising efforts
Fundraising Efforts
  • Government didn't have enough money to support the war because we were just coming out of a recession; looked to citizens to help out
    • Chinese Canadian communities raised over $5 million for the war efforts
    • "One Percent Scheme“ (in NFLD)
    • Scrap drives
    • Victory Gardens
    • Packing Boxes of supplies
    • Rationing
    • Victory Bonds
technology training advancements
Technology & Training Advancements
  • Air Force
    • British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP)
    • Pilots, bombers, navigators, gunners, paratroopers, etc. trained in Canada
  • Camp X
    • Intelligence service to gather information about the enemy; based in Canada
    • Many agents went under cover into Nazi-occupied Europe
  • Project Manhattan
    • Canadian scientists helped develop the atomic bomb
    • Uranium sourced from Deep River, ON
  • Radar & Sonar
    • Could detect enemy aircraft (radar) and enemy submarines (sonar)
    • This could be used to plan a counter-attack against the enemy forces
hitler s road to war causes of wwii
Hitler’s Road to War & Causes of WWII

START OF WWII

  • Between 1936 and 1939, Hitler took over more and more territory in Europe and no one reacted to his actions
    • March 1936: troops sent into Rhineland; supposed to be no troops were allowed
    • March 1938: takes over Austria for Germany
    • October 1938: allowed to take over Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia (mostly German speaking); Hitler promises no more demands for territory
    • March 1939: take over the rest of Czechoslovakia
    • September 1939: invades Poland
battles of wwii
Battles of WWII

Battle of Britain  1940, Britain; prevented Germany from invading Britain (last unconquered country in Europe) with “Blitzkrieg”; planes mostly fought

Battle of the Atlantic  1939-1945, Atlantic Ocean; fought to maintain supply route; used convoys and “corvette” ships to avoid German “wolf packs”

Battle of Hong Kong  1941, Hong Kong; helped to fight against Japan, but Hong Kong lost in 17 days, Canadians put in POW camps

Dieppe 1942, France; massacred by Germany forces on the beach; tanks useless on sandy/rocky ground

Italian Campaign  1943-1945, Italy; fought hand-to-hand to liberate Italy

D-Day  1945, Normandy; planned for 2 years after Dieppe failure, pushed Germans back (beginning of the end); Canadians in charge of Juno beach

Liberation of Netherlands  1945, Netherlands; pushed Germans out and provided starving Dutch people with supplies (formed special relationship with Dutch people)

atomic bombings in japan
Atomic Bombings in Japan
  • First bomb dropped on August 6, 1945 in Hiroshima
    • Dropped bomb “little boy” at 8:15 am
    • 90,000 – 166,000 killed or died of injuries/radiation
  • Second bomb dropped in August 9, 1945 in Nagasaki
    • Dropped bomb “fat man” at 11:01 am
    • 60,000 – 80,000 killed or died of injuries/radiation
  • Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945
internment of japanese canadians
Internment of Japanese Canadians
  • After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Japanese Canadians were sent to internment camps
    • Of the 21,000 sent, 17,000 were Canadian citizens
    • Forced to live in cramped conditions with little food, no running water, no flushing toilets under armed guard
  • All of their possessions were claimed and sold to pay for the internment camps
  • Some were deported back to Japan
    • Many had never actually been to Japan in their lives!
women s roles in the war
Women’s Roles in the War
  • Couldn’t have any combat roles, but had positions in every division of the military service
    • Air Transportation Auxiliary Ferry Service transported planes to Britain, worked in ground crew
    • Canadian Women's Army Corps secretaries, mechanics & cooks, went through basic training
    • Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service got the best of the best!, trained on all women’s ship
    • Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps nursing
conscription of 1943
Conscription of 1943
  • PM Mackenzie King didn’t want to enforce conscription
    • Had a negative effect on the country in 1917
    • Needed to do something, volunteer rates were dropping off
  • Held a plebiscite (voters asked to answer a yes or no question; government may choose to adopt of ignore the result)
    • Divided country again, but it passed
    • Conscripts drafted and trained, but were never sent overseas
    • Left a bad feeling with the nation
the holocaust
The Holocaust
  • Discrimination against the Jews started long before the war
    • 1933  first concentration camp opened in Dachau for political prisoners and other “unwanted’s”
    • 1935  Nuremburg Laws (couldn’t attend university, teach in any school or university, marry a person who was not of the Jewish faith, hold a government job, be the author of a book, be a lawyer or doctor)
    • 1938  “Kristallnacht” where 1000s of business were destroyed and Jews were attacked in the streets
    • Ghettos  parts of cities turned into Jewish-only slums; extremely poor conditions, close to rail lines for evacuation
the holocaust1
The Holocaust
  • Final Solution
    • plan to exterminate Jews and other “undesirable” races in Europe
    • Jews, Romas, handicapped, mentally-ill, homosexual and others sent to:
      • Concentration camps  forced manual labour to support Germany’s war efforts
      • Death camps  large scale mass-murder by gas/poison; six camps existed
  • When these camps were finally liberated, Nazi’s tried to run away (with prisoners) or burn them down to hide the evidence
    • Some intact because they had to leave without warning
    • Allies were horrified at what they saw  malnutrition, disease, torture, medical experimentation
  • Nuremburg Trials (1945-1949) held to put those in charge of the Holocaust and other war crimes to justice
post war era topics
Post War Era: Topics
  • United Nations
  • Cold War
  • Korean War
  • Suez Crisis
  • Population explosion  immigration and baby boom
  • Popular Culture
united nations
United Nations
  • Created after WWII because League of Nations had failed
  • Wanted to be able to protect people after the horrors of the Holocaust
  • Permanent members all had to agree for any actions to take place
    • Had “veto” power if they didn’t agree; action would not be undertaken unless everyone was on the same page
  • Major contribution was the creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by Canadian John Peters Humphrey (law expert)
the cold war
The Cold War
  • Soviet Union wanted to spread communism around the world
    • “Iron Curtain” divided communist Eastern Europe/Soviet Union from capitalist Western Europe/North America
    • Formation of NATO and Warsaw Pact alliances for protection
  • Nuclear bombings in Japan started “nuclear age” and a new arms race
    • Mostly in the form of threats, spies and intelligence gathering
  • Soviet Union also launched a satellite (Sputnik) into space
    • Rockets could carry missiles and get to N.A. faster
    • Had also developed the hydrogen bomb, more powerful
    • People created nuclear fallout shelters to protect from nuclear war
  • Canada and the U.S. pooled their resources and decided to cooperate with each other to defend against a potential attack
    • NORAD set up radar stations, joined military equipment
population boom
Population Boom
  • Immigration
    • again, Canada was attractive place to go after the war
    • Soldiers brought back “war brides” and children
    • Canada changed its immigration laws to allow for refugees of the war and political situations to enter the country (Holocaust, Hungarian revolution)
    • 2 million immigrated
  • Baby boom
    • Good economic times
    • Couples wed early and started families
    • 9 million children born between 1945 – 1960
popular culture
Popular Culture
  • 1950’s saw the creation of a “teenage” culture
    • Had part-time jobs, allowances (“buying power”)
    • Created their own style of dress (bobby-soxers, greasers), acted rebelliously, listened to R & B and rock n’ roll
      • parents and conservative society disapproved (religion was important factor)
    • Things like movies, products, businesses were focused on this market for huge profits