Canada, eh? Canadian History. Standard. SS6H4: The student will describe the impact of European Contact on Canada Describe the influence of the French and English on the language and religion of Canada Explain how Canada became an independent nation
Standard SS6H4: The student will describe the impact of European Contact on Canada Describe the influence of the French and English on the language and religion of Canada Explain how Canada became an independent nation SS6H5: The student will analyze important contemporary issues in Canada Describe Quebec’s independence movement
Location Like the United States, Canada is in North America. It sits just North of the U.S.
What does Canada Look like? Canadian Rockies Chateau Lake Louise
History of Canada Native Canadians like the Inuit are believed to have migrated from Asian lands about 11,000 years ago. For thousands of years, they hunted on the land, fished in the waters, and gathered wild vegetation. Ice fishing continues even today Inuit: Native Indians of Canada
The First Visitors Evidence shows that the Vikings first landed in the “New World” around 1000AD. Leif Ericson and his men landed in what is Modern day Newfoundland. They called it Vinland, meaning “meadowland” in Norse. They did not stay long at in the settlement. Norse: German based languagespoken by Vikings
John Cabot It took about 500 years before any more Europeans would arrive. Giovanni Cabato (John Cabot) an Italian born explorer who moved to England began exploring in the name of England. He was looking for a shortcut to Asia like everyone else. In 1498 he explored much of the coastal areas of what would some day become Canada and the United States. He was the first European to discover North America since the Vikings.
John Cabot When Cabot came back he told everyone in England about the rich fishing waters in Canada and about its many plentiful resources. It did not take long for the word to spread around the rest of Europe that Canada would be a good place to colonize. But it was not the fishing that attracted Europe’s attention. It was the…Beaver!
No, not this Canadian Bieber
The Beavers ahhh, they want my fur! This Kind of Canadian Beaver! For, in Europe, beaver pelt hats had become all the rage, and the popularity of those hats created a large market for beaver fur.
The Word about the Fur Spreads and Colonization Begins In the early 1500 and 1600’s French settlers start to arrive and settle along the Atlantic Coast along St. Lawrence River French explorers claim much of Canada as “New France” They are interested in fishing but most of all the fur trade In 1608 Quebec - the first of many French settlements - was established.
Samuel de Champlain Quebec was headed by Samuelde Champlain, a noted geographer and explorer. He was later made governor of New France by the French king LuisXIII.
Did You Know? Ice Hotel In Quebec Every thing in this Hotel is made of ice!
Competition France's 17th century competitor - England – especially King Charles II, kept a wary eye on French developments in the New World. The British monarch had his own plans for establishing a colony in North America.
French and Indian War (1754-1763) As a result the British also settled in Canada in nearby lands along the east coast. Pretty soon competition for land and trade became intense between the English and the French. The French got mad and got their Indian allies and attacked English forts. At first the French’s Indian Allies gave them the advantage.
Remember: How Cortes got some of the Aztecs Indian enemies to join forces with him to defeat Montezuma?
French and Indian War (1754-1763)A.K.A “The Seven Years War” Soon the British got smart and got some Indian allies of their own. All this fighting spread and large battles broke out in Europe. The fighting was known in the Americas as the “The French and Indian War”. In Europe it was known as the “The Seven Years' War” and covered almost all of the continent, and even beyond. The tide turned for the British in 1758, as they began to make peace with important Indian allies and began adapting their war strategies to fit the territory and landscape of the American frontier.
French and Indian War (1754-1763)A.K.A “The Seven Years War” England Wins: When peace returned to the region, in 1763, England took over the eastern portion of what would some day become Canada - an area that previously had belonged to France. Oh yeah, England Rocks!
The French and Indian war or the Seven Years war set the stage for to the American Revolutionary war. Great Britain was in a lot of debt and unfairly taxed the Americans. “No taxation without representation!”
how Canada became an independent nation
“Peace and Negotiation”
The British being considerate The English never insisted that its new citizens of French ancestry adopt English customs Instead of changing their religion England recognized the Roman Catholic Church in North America to which most French settlers and their descendants belonged. It also established French civil law - all of which was meant to create good will among those of French heritage. They did not want the Canadians to revolt like the Americans (Revolutionary War).
Why? Because they were Broke from fighting the Seven Years war and could NOT afford another war!
Dividing Canada Many Americans who remained loyal to England during the revolutionary war fled to Canada at the end of the war. They were called United Empire Loyalists. The Loyalists brought to Canada a belief in representative or democratic government, for they had lived in areas with colonial legislatures. To keep the Loyalists happy, and avoid another revolution, in 1791 the British divided Quebec into two parts - - Upper Canada (later, Ontario): English-speaking, Protestant - Lower Canada (Quebec): French-speaking, Roman Catholic The assemblies had no real power, however.
Peaceful Negotiations Despite this outward calm, however, many in Canada had come to feel that their English rulers had too much power, and some rioted against English control in 1837. The British Parliament was broke from so may wars and fearing there would be another revolution against England in North America, joined Upper and Lower Canada in a series of peaceful negotiations. They could not afford a domino effect happening.
Canadian Independence Then, in 1867, Canadian and British leaders drafted the British North America Act, which gave Canada its independence. Every July 1st, Canadians mark the Act's passage by celebrating "Canada Day.” The country's symbol, the maple leaf, is found everywhere on the holiday. At night, fireworks fill the skies in towns and cities across the nation.
Canada: British Commonwealth Once independent Canada becomes a British Commonwealth British Commonwealth – a group of nations consisting of the United Kingdom and several former British colonies that are now sovereign states but are still loyal to the British Crown. All commonwealth countries are considered to be independent and of equal status.
Canada Establishes a Government Canada has a constitutional Monarchy (Not true Autocracy because one person does not hold all the power). In 1931 Canada establishes a Parliamentary Government with the British monarch its sovereign or head of state Canadians live under a democratic government modeled on both the British and U.S. systems Parliament (legislative branch)— Kind of like our congress: combines legislative and executive functions -consists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commons Judicial branch: Its highest court is the Supreme Court. Prime minister (executive branch) – Kind of like our president: head of government, is majority party leader Stephen Harper
Autocracy A B Rule by one Rule by few
In a Democratic type government: A B People participate and have a say People do not participate and don’t have a say
Connections A constitutional monarchy is most likely to have what type of government? Oligarchy Autocracy Democracy Democracy: Type of government in where people participate and have a say. C
Connections What are the 3 branches of Autocracy: Autocracy
Connections What are the 3 branches of Autocracy: Autocracy Monarchy Dictator
Ten Provinces of Canada Canada has ten provinces. All have their own legislature and prime minister - federal government administers the territories
A High Standard of Living The provincial governments take care of education Canadians enjoy a high standard of living and are well-educated Students score highly on standardized tests Today, Canada has a 97% literacy rate Canada is one of the wealthiest nations with a high per capita income
Quebec's Independent Movement
Conflict In Quebec Not all was well in Canada after it became independent from Britain. Lower Canada (Quebec): French-speaking and Upper Canada (Ontario): English-speaking had a competitive relationship over land and resources. The differences in culture between those of French and English ancestry have never been completely resolved in Canada. Years of feeling like second class citizens led many French Canadians to fight peacefully for Quebec’s independence, hoping to preserve their culture and language. Oooh La La. Viva la France!
Quiet Revolution In the 1970s, tensions boiled over when many of French heritage protested to have the province of Quebec break away from the rest of Canada. Voters turned down the proposed secession. The attempt to secede was tried several more times. But each time, the efforts have failed. The French’s efforts have been peaceful and for the most part it has not been a violent revolution. They are using negotiation or talking to try to break free. Secession: to break away and become independent from a ruling body.
Think About it Hmmm… Extension question- How would life be different if the state of Georgia gained independence from the United States and became its own country?
Culture of Canada
“Language and Religion”
A land of Many Cultures Canada is a land of many cultures. Many people have immigrated there. People of many different cultural backgrounds - not only Europeans but Asians, Africans, and Native Canadians like the Inuit just to name a few
A land of Many Cultures In the 20th century a wave of immigration (people moving to Canada) occurred. Many were drawn by the inexpensive land offered by the Canadian government. After World War II, there was another great surge; Italians, Eastern Europeans, Vietnamese and other Asians - came to Canada's shores, settled, and made lives for themselves in their adopted homeland. Even so, British customs and culture are the most influential throughout most of Canada.
French and English Influence The two most influential countries on Canada’s culture are France and England. Remember: The most common culture is that of the English followed then by the influence of the French culture. Languages: Most people are bilingual and speak both English and French languages. Religion: Most of those of English heritage are Protestant and those of French heritage are Catholic. These two groups often clash.
A land of Many Cultures Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas - 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec - many native peoples live on reserves—public land set aside for them - most Inuitslive in the remote Arctic in the north - many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast
Most Populated Areas There are about 34 million people living in Canada today. Population is densest in port cities by water (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlands. 80% of Canadians live in cities.
Canada Today In these and other Canadian cities, people live much like city dwellers elsewhere in NorthAmerica and Europe. They take trains, buses and cars to go to work every day, or to attend school. They spend their down time doing many different things, such as attending country fairs, soaking up the sun's warmth at the beach, listening to music or watching their favorite sports team - in person or on TV.
Recreation and Leisure Canadians are very active people The two most popular sports are hockey and lacrosse -Lacrosse was developed by the native peoples -Hockey developed by French settlers
Recreation and Leisure Other Popular sports include: skating, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting and rodeo Annual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede
The Big Four: Key Events that Shaped Canada
“The Development of Canada”
Key Events There were a few key events that helped shape Canada. Treaty of Paris The Quebec Act British North American Act Transcontinental Railroad
1.Treaty of Paris The Treaty of Paris (1763), was signed in by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years War. The signing of the treaty formally ended the Seven Years' War, otherwise known as the Frenchand Indian War which marked the beginning of an era of British power outside Europe.
Why was it so Important to Canada? The treaty gave the British the land east of the Mississippi river to include Canada.
2.The Quebec Act (the British being Considerate) In 1774, in the Quebec Act, French Canadians in Quebec were given the right to continue practicing Catholicism. It also established French civil law - all of which was meant to create peace between the British and the French Canadians.
3.The British North America Act In 1867, after negotiating over a period of time, Canadian and British leaders drafted the BritishNorthAmerica Act, which gave Canada its independence. The British knew they could not afford another war and sensing that one might happen with Canada they let the colony go peacefully.
British Reaction The British were also happy to no longer have the responsibility of protectingone more colony. I’m so glad we got rid of those Canadians!
4.Transcontinental Railroad Increased shipment of goods across the country Increased travel from coast to coast Created new provinces & territories But most important: Birth of Canadian nationalism before the railroad, most people only thought of themselves as belonging to their province; after they felt as if they were part of one country Nationalism:loyalty and devotion to a nation