Research project design assoc prof chiwoza r bandawe
1 / 27

The Process of Qualitative Research Methods - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Research & Project Design Assoc. Prof. Chiwoza R Bandawe. The Process of Qualitative Research Methods. What is the purpose of my research?. What is my research for? How will this contribute to the socio-political and cultural context of Malawi?

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' The Process of Qualitative Research Methods' - sora

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Research project design assoc prof chiwoza r bandawe

Research & Project Design

Assoc. Prof. Chiwoza R Bandawe

The Process of Qualitative Research Methods

What is the purpose of my research
What is the purpose of my research?

  • What is my research for?

  • How will this contribute to the socio-political and cultural context of Malawi?

  • Who will benefit? How emancipatory or participatory is it?

What topic or broad area is the research concerned with
What topic or broad area is the research concerned with?

  • Health?

  • Policy?

  • Sociological?

  • Historical?

  • Multi disciplinary approach?

What puzzle am i trying to unwind
What puzzle am I trying to unwind?

  • Development puzzle? How and why did x or y develop?

  • Mechanical puzzles? How does x or y work? Why does it work in this way?

  • Comparative puzzles? What can we learn from comparing x and y? How can we explain the differences between them?

What are my research questions
What are my research questions?

  • What is the social reality I wish to investigate?

  • What explanations or arguments can I build from my data?

  • Can I generalise my findings?

  • Are my RQs consistent & linked with each other? Do they add to a sensible whole?

  • Are they worth asking and grounded in an understanding of the relevant background?

How is the social world organised
How is the social world organised?

  • What is my theory/ cosmology or world view?

  • What are my life values?

  • How might my cosmology influence my research?

Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis

  • Principles of data analysis (Patton,1990)

  • 1. No exact replication. Each study unique

  • 2. Dependent on skills of researcher at each stage of study

  • 3. No absolute rules, but guidelines for analysis

  • 4. Report and monitor and report analytical procedures in detail

Principles of qualitative data analysis
Principles of qualitative data analysis

  • Important for researchers to recognise and account for own perspective

    • Respondent validation

    • Seek alternative explanations

    • Work closely with same-language key informant familiar with the languages and perspectives of both researchers and participants

Principles of qualitative data analysis1
Principles of qualitative data analysis

  • Context is critical

    i.e. physical, historical, social, political, organisational, individual context


    • Identify convergence / divergence of views and how contextual factors may influence the differences

Principles of qualitative data analysis2
Principles of qualitative data analysis

  • Role of theory guides approach to analysis

    • Established conceptual framework – predetermined categories according to research questions

    • Grounded theory – interrogate the data for emergent themes

Principles of qualitative data analysis3
Principles of qualitative data analysis

  • Pay attention to deviant cases / exceptions

    • Gives a voice to minorities

    • Yield new insights

    • Lead to further inquiry

Principles of qualitative data analysis4
Principles of qualitative data analysis

  • Data analysis is a non-linear / iterative process

    • Numerous rounds of questioning, reflecting, rephrasing, analysing, theorising, verifying after each observation, interview, or Focus Group Discussion

Steps to analysis
Steps to Analysis

  • Step 1: Familiarisation and immersion

  • Step 2: Inducing themes/ Hypothesis Formulation:

    • Identifying

    • Coding

    • Categorisation

  • Step 3: Discursive Elaboration (context)

  • Step 4: Interpretation (telling the story)

Discourse language
Discourse (language)

  • Realised in texts

  • Is about objects

  • Contains subjects

  • Reflects its own way of speaking/ presentation

  • Is historically located


  • A set of ideas that explains reality, provides guidelines for behaviour and expresses the interest of a group

  • Elaborate: Christianity, capitalism, Marxism.

  • Consistent framework guiding action

  • Narrowly aimed at one side of issue

Step 1 familiarisation and immersion
Step 1:Familiarisation and immersion

  • Read the whole, read parts and see how they fit into the whole picture.

  • What are the contradictions?

  • What are the taken for granted statements?

  • What vivid expressions, figures of speech and metaphors emerge?

  • What repetitions, gaps are noticed?

Step 1 continued
Step 1 …continued

  • Why is this pattern like this?

  • How are the sentences constructed? Active or passive?

  • How is the language being used? E.g. police: “they did it, I keep law and order” for protection.

  • Comb the data and immerse yourself

Step 2 inducing themes
Step 2: Inducing Themes

  • Order the text into segment and solicit themes

  • - Way in which people categorise

  • -Who is doing the categories?

  • -Look for consistent patterns

  • Coding

  • Categorisation

Processes in qualitative data analysis
Processes in qualitative data analysis

  • Coding – Identifying emerging themes

    • Code the themes that you have identified

      • No standard rules of how to code

      • Researchers differ on how to derive codes, when to start and stop, and on the level of detail required

      • Record coding decisions

      • Usually - insert codes / labels into the margins

      • Use words or parts of words to flag ideas you find in the transcript

      • Identify sub-themes and explore them in greater depth

Coding identifying emerging themes
Coding – Identifying emerging themes

  • Codes / labels

    • Emergent codes

      • Closely match the language and ideas in the textual data

    • Insert notes during the coding process

      • Explanatory notes, questions

    • Give consideration to the words that you will use as codes / labels – must capture meaning and lead to explanations

    • Flexible coding scheme – record codes, definitions, and revisions

Code continuously as data collection proceeds
Code continuously as data collection proceeds

  • Imposes a systematic approach

  • Helps to identify gaps or questions while it is possible to return for more data

  • Reveals early biases

  • Helps to re-define concepts

Step 3 discursive elaboration
Step 3: Discursive Elaboration

  • Texts work to reproduce status quo of power relations OR disrupt, challenge, deconstruct, show marginal voices.

  • Explore function of texts in relation to:

  • Power

  • Ideology

  • Institutions & domination

Developing hypotheses questioning and verification
Developing hypotheses, questioning and verification

  • Extract meaning from the data

  • Do the categories developed make sense?

  • What pieces of information contradict my emerging ideas?

  • What pieces of information are missing or underdeveloped?

  • What other opinions should be taken into account?

  • How do my own biases influence the data collection and analysis process?

Step 3 tools for analysis
Step 3 Tools for Analysis

  • How are persons, situations named, referred to linguistically?

  • What traits, qualities, characteristics attributed?

  • What arguments are used to justify, legitimise the status quo?

Step 4 telling the story
Step 4: Telling the Story

  • Bringing the whole analysis together into a coherent whole. For a competent and useful guideline, refer to the article:

  • Malterud, K. (2001). Qualitative research: standards, challenges, guidelines. The Lancet, 358, 483-488.


  • Dependability

    • Can findings be replicated?

  • Confirmability

    • Audit trail

      • Permits external review of analysis decisions

  • Transferability

    • Apply lessons learned in one context to another

      • Support, refine, limit the generalisability of, or propose an alternative model or theory