Jihad. Sequence. Concepts Various Kinds of Jihad History and Issues Is Jihad Terrorism Epilogue. Outline. What is Islam about? Definition of Jihad Jihad in Islamic Terminology Aim of Jihad Elements of Jihad Levels of Jihad Significance of Jihad War in Islam
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Sequence Concepts Various Kinds of Jihad History and Issues Is Jihad Terrorism Epilogue
Outline • What is Islam about? • Definition of Jihad • Jihad in Islamic Terminology • Aim of Jihad • Elements of Jihad • Levels of Jihad • Significance of Jihad • War in Islam • Jihad and Terrorism • Roots of Fundamentalism
Concepts • Meaning from Arabic “Juhd” • Dictionary: Struggle, striving • Practical : A determined struggle in the cause of good “Jihad fi Sabilillah” • Can be termed as struggle of various types
Concepts Cont… A person engaged in jihad is called a Mujahid, the plural is Mujahideen In Modern Standard Arabic, term jihad is used for a struggle for any cause, violent or non-violent, religious or secular Sixth pillar of Islam. (According to some Sunni scholars)
Concepts cont…. As Military Warfare (Qittal) With certain conditions and practice it is termed as Jihad bi-saif The term Jihad is generally used in fiqh manuals in reference to military combat
Quranic View • Indeed believers are those who hold belief in Allah and His messenger (PBUH).Then do not have any doubt and wage jihad in the cause of Allah with their property and life…” (Al-Hujraat : 15) Further explained in Al-Nissa-74,95 , Al-Infaal-9,10,17,Al-Tauba-19 to 22
In Ahadiths, • Reference 1: • Hazrat Abu Qatada (RA) Muslim,Kitabul Amara,Bab min Katal Fi Sabillillah • Reference 2 : • Hazrat Abdullah bin Masud (RA) Bukhari, Kitab ul Jihad, Bab Fazlul Jihad.
Objectives as described in Quran • According to verses [Qur'an 8:39], the Qur'an implies two objectives: • Uproot fitnah (فتنة) • Establish supremacy of Islam in the world
What is Islam about? • Islam= s-l-m; Peace, Submission, Salvation • Order, Harmony, and Integrity • Within one’s soul and society
Definition of Jihad • Jihad=J-h-d; to strive, to achieve a goal • Jihad in Islam • To strive in the way of God • To use all physical, intellectual, and spiritual resources for God • To struggle to win God’s pleasure and love
Aim of Jihad • To be purified of sins • To attain true humanity • To achieve order peace and harmony within the soul and society
Two Elements of Jihad • Spreading the Word of God • Enjoining Good, Forbidding Evil
Significance of Jihad • Sixth/Fifth pillar of Islamic practice • Problems in translations • “O you who believe! Do your duty to Allah and fear Him. Seek the means of approach to Him, and strive hard in His Cause as much as you can. So that you may be successful.” (Maide, 35)
War in Islam • War= Only when inevitable, when preaching is prevented, when Muslims are oppressed • No transgression (2:190) • "Do not burn a plant, nor cut a tree, nor kill an older man, a young child, or a woman... nor monastery dwellers… in the territory of combatants." 2:190 Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors.
Roots of Fundamentalism • What is fundamentalism? • Theological basis - 9:36, 2:190 • Historical roots - Colonialism,resistance and revivalists movements • Social situation • Lack of Education, Poverty, Fragmentation
Pickthall (9/36) Lo! the number of the months with Allah is twelve months by Allah's ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred: that is the right religion. So wrong not yourselves in them. And wage war on all of the idolaters as they are waging war on all of you. And know that Allah is with those who keep their duty (unto Him). Urdu خدا کے نزدیک مہینے گنتی میں (بارہ ہیں یعنی) اس روز (سے) کہ اس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو پیدا کیا۔ کتاب خدا میں (برس کے) بارہ مہینے (لکھے ہوئے) ہیں۔ ان میں سے چار مہینے ادب کے ہیں۔ یہی دین (کا) سیدھا راستہ ہے۔ تو ان (مہینوں) میں (قتال ناحق سے) اپنے آپ پر ظلم نہ کرنا۔ اور تم سب کے سب مشرکوں سے لڑو جیسے وہ سب کے سب تم سے لڑتے ہیں۔ اور جان رکھو کہ خدا پرہیز گاروں کے ساتھ ہے
Various Types of Jihad • Jihad bil Maal • Jihad bil Qalum (pen) • Jihad bil Saif (Qital) • Greatest is Jihad bil Nafs (Jihad-e-Akbar)
Jihad bil-ma’al Wealth is given by Allah and it should be spent in His way Necessary source for every Jihad If everyone cant participate physically, they can participate financially
Jihad bil-Qalum (Pen) To fight with pen Against ignorance, Illiteracy, Social evils Mental persuasion for teachings of Islam Superior to Jihad bil Maal
Jihad bi-na’fs • Fighting with inner self against the evils • Because ,Rightness of all actions depends on precision of inner-self • It means controlling evil desires of Nafs-e-Ammara (Evil Self) • Requires the greatest efforts • Superior to all kinds of Jihads
JIHAD AL-AKBAR The highest kind of jihad is to strive against one's self and restrain oneself from evil desires Quran say's “And those who strive in Our cause. We will certainly guide them in Our paths,For verily Allah is with those who do right.” The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once said “the best jihad is that one does against one's self and desires
Jihad bil Saif (Qital) A distinctive feature of Islam Jihad in the form of warfare High honor for Shaheed and Ghazi Option of last resort Concept became debatable in these days
Jihad as warfare (Qitaal) • In the Qur’an the term used for this form of Jihad is Qittaal • The only form of warfare permissible under in Islamic jurisprudence • May be declared against : • Apostates, • Rebels, • Violent Groups, • Non-Muslim combatants,
Rules for Jihad • Classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, the rules regarding armed warfare are covered at great length. • Not killing women, children and non-combatants • Not to damage cultivated or residential areas
Levels of Jihad • Three levels: • Personal: That of the soul • Verbal: Raising one's voice in the name of Allah on behalf of justice. • "The most excellent jihad is the speaking of truth in the face of a tyrant" (Hadith) • Physical: Combat waged in defense against oppression and transgression. • Profoundly misunderstood in today's world.
Various Views about Jihad Jihad has been classified by sunni scholars as • Jihād al-akbar • (the greater jihad), the struggle against one's soul (nafs), • Jihād al-asghar • (the lesser jihad), the external, physical effort, often implying fighting • Similar view of the shiite scholars about Jihad
Another view The Hanbali scholars believe that "internal Jihad" is important but they suggests those Hadith as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword".
History • Righteous Caliphate • Against Zakat refusers, Apostates • Umayyad (661-750) • Samarqand,Bukhara,Spain,Sindh • Abbasid (750-1258) • Crusades (1095-1270)
Cont…. • Ottoman (1299-1923) • Constantinople(1452) • Sub Continent : • Tarain (1192) • Mughals 1526 -1757 • Mysore(1782-1799) • Balakot (1831) • War of Independence • Kashmir(1948 and 1987) • Afghanistan (1980s).
Driving Forces • Jihad should not be undertaken • To gratify one’s whims, nor to obtain wealth and riches. • To conquer territories and rule them ,to acquire fame • to appease the emotions of communal support, and hostility. • On the contrary, it should be undertaken only for the cause of Allah as is evident from the words. As in Qur'an: • Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Satan. So fight you against the friends of Satan.
Propaganda against Jihad • Ad hoc definitions of US of jihad : • Individuals involved in terrorist activities • 'holy war‘ the use of violence, including paramilitary action against persons, governments deemed to be enemies of the fundamentalist version of Islam.” • 'violent jihad' or 'jihad' include planning, preparing for, and engaging in, acts of physical violence, including murder, damaging, kidnapping, and hostage-taking.
Cont… • In West ,specially in US the term Jihadist, technically is referred • A derogatory term of Mujahid • Frequently used to describe militant Islamic groups • Not restricted to Islamic terrorism
Issues • Qital: When does it become obligatory? • permission of State required or not • Qital: Defensive (Difai) or Offensive (Iqdami)? • Qital: Obligatory on all or on few? • “Jihadist:” Western attempts at defaming Jihad
Conclusion This is one of the fundamentals of Islam and it is a great worship. Adversaries of Islam has restricted this word to the narrow meaning of “war against the enemies of religion. The word jihad contains in itself the broad significant activities striving without which no movement has either succeeded in the past or can succeed in the future.
Conclusion A unique worship Ijtihad in essence of Johad is needed Negative propaganda to be countered
Warfare is ordained for you, though it is hateful unto you; but it may happen that ye hate a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that ye love a thing which is bad for you. Allah knoweth, ye know not. (02/216) مسلمانو) تم پر (خدا کے رستے میں) لڑنا فرض کردیا گیا ہے وہ تمہیں ناگوار تو ہوگا مگر عجب نہیں کہ ایک چیز تم کو بری لگے اور وہ تمہارے حق میں بھلی ہو اور عجب نہیں کہ ایک چیز تم کو بھلی لگے اور وہ تمہارے لئے مضر ہو۔ اور ان باتوں کو) خدا ہی بہتر جانتا ہے اور تم نہیں جانتے
Pickthall O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight. If there be of you twenty steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a hundred (steadfast) they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are a folk without intelligence. Surat Al-'Anfāl /65 اے نبی! مسلمانوں کو جہاد کی ترغیب دو۔ اور اگر تم بیس آدمی ثابت قدم رہنے والے ہوں گے تو دو سو کافروں پر غالب رہیں گے۔ اور اگر سو (ایسے) ہوں گے تو ہزار پر غالب رہیں گے۔ اس لیے کہ کافر ایسے لوگ ہیں کہ کچھ بھی سمجھ نہیں رکھتے