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Goal 5: Ecology. Why Study Ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environments Ecologist ask questions such as: “What does a coyote eat” “How does temperature affect the growth of plants” “How does day length affect bird migration”. Bio= life

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why study ecology
Why Study Ecology
  • Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environments
  • Ecologist ask questions such as:
  • “What does a coyote eat”
  • “How does temperature affect the growth of plants”
  • “How does day length affect bird migration”
slide3
Bio= life
  • The sphere of life consists of living and nonliving factors. It supports all life.
  • Biotic= living
  • Abiotic=non-living
make a column of biotic and abiotic factors
Make a Column of Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • BIOTIC
  • -bacteria
  • -grass
  • -fungus
  • -fish
  • -mushrooms
  • ABIOTIC
  • -air
  • -water
  • -nitrogen
  • -dirt
  • -sun
organizing living things in ecology
Organizing Living Things in Ecology
  • First level (most specific)- Organism
    • Individual living thing
  • 2nd Level - Population
    • Group of organisms all of one species
organization continued
Organization continued
  • 3rd Level - Biological Community
    • All the living (biotic) populations of species that live in the same place at the same time
organization cont
Organization cont.
  • 4th level - Ecosystem
    • Both biotic and abiotic things that interact with each other in given area at the same time
finally the last level
Finally…… The last level
  • Fifth and biggest level - Biosphere
  • Portion of Earth that supports living things
organisms in ecosystems habitat vs niche
Organisms in EcosystemsHabitat vs. Niche
  • Habitat = the place where an organism lives out it’s life
    • Where you live
    • One habitat can have many niches
  • Niche = strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment
    • Organism’s role in the habitat
    • More than one species can not occupy the same niche in a location.
bellringer
Bellringer
  • Relate each one of the characteristics of life to the human body.
  • Example: Genetic Code: My genetic information is contained in DNA and RNA
5 01a identify and describe symbiotic relationships
5.01a Identify and describe symbiotic relationships
  • Symbiosis = "intimate living together" between different species.
  • Refers to the different relationships that can exist between organisms

1. Mutualism (+,+)

2. Commensalism (+, 0)

3. Parasitism (+, -)

4. Predator-Prey cycle

mutualism clownfish and anemone
Mutualism – clownfish and anemone

The clownfish gets protection from the anemone and in return protects the anemone from fish that would eat it (angelfish); the clownfish also keeps the anemone free of dirt and debris

http://www.bigfishhooked.com/clown_fish_and_anenome.jpg

mutualism lichens and algae
Mutualism – Lichens and Algae

Lichens consist of a

fungus with an algae

or photosynthetic

bacterium living

inside the fungus.

The alga provides

food for both of them

and the fungus

provides a habitat for

the alga.

tbnid=7aE_8wrZkK9LJM:&tbnh=111&tbnw=148&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlichen%26start%3D20%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

mutualism ant and aphid
Mutualism – Ant and Aphid
  • Aphids provides honeydew sugar for ants. Ants protect the aphids from predators and parasites.

http://www.richsoil.com/antsandaphids/ants_aphids_sugar.jpg

mutualism sea slug with algae
Mutualism – sea slug with algae

The algae

lives in the

sea slug

and makes

food for

both of

them – in

return it

gets a place

to live.

http://www.calacademy.org/science_now/new_species/melibe_digitata.html

nitrogen fixing nodules
Nitrogen fixing nodules

Bacteria in the

nodules can take

nitrogen gas from

the atmosphere

and turn it into a

form that can be

used by the plant;

in return, the plant

protects the

bacteria from

harmful oxygen and

the bacteria get

food from the plant.

http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/images/pests/179.jpg

mutualism pollination
Mutualism - pollination

Many plants depend on

pollinators for their

reproduction. They

provide nectar to attract

these pollinators. So

the pollinator gets fed

and the plant gets

reproduced!

http://www.life.uiuc.edu/help/digitalflowers/picts/Asteraceae/15-Liatris%20pollination.jpg

protozoans in cow s stomach
Protozoans in cow’s stomach

These protozoans along with

bacteria help the cow by

digesting cellulose; cows

don’t have the enzymes to

do this.

The protozoans and bacteria get a place to live and a continual food source. This is a valuable mutualistic relationship.

http://commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/dlc-me/zoo/zac0278.jpg

ants and acacia trees
Ants and Acacia Trees
  • Acacia provides ants with a protein rich secretion. Ants protect tree from herbivores.

http://www.agrotours.com/bio/cr13.jpg

cattle egret commensalism
Cattle Egret - Commensalism

The cattle stir

up

grasshoppers

and other

insects that the

egret likes to

eat. There is

no apparent

benefit to the

cow.

commensalism shark and remora
Commensalism – shark and remora

The remora

benefits by

getting food

from the

shark’s meal.

But there is no

apparent

benefit to the

shark.

http://www.scubaduba.com/gallery/shark2.jpg

commensalism whale and barnacle
Commensalism – whale and barnacle

Barnacle larvae attach to the whale. The barnacle has a habitat. Whale is not harmed.

  • http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/wildlife/whales/humptail.jpg
parasitism1
Parasitism

Tick feeds on the blood of the host. The host loses blood or is subject to infection/death.

mistletoe a plant parasite
Mistletoe – a plant parasite

Mistletoe lives off the branches and stems of Other trees. The tree can be very harmed.

http://www.wcosf.org/other_photos/Mistletoe_1_600.JPG

predator prey
Predator-Prey

In a predator-prey relationship one organism benefits and the other is killed.

predator prey cycle
Predator-Prey Cycle

Prey Population = Predator Population

More predators = more prey eaten

Less predators = less prey they eat

Prey Population Goes = Predator Population Goes

Predator: hunts: wolf

Prey: hunted: rabbit

bubble map
Bubble Map
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Benefit
  • Harmed
  • No effect
  • Mutualistic
  • Commensalism
  • Parasitism
  • ** Examples of Each
slide33
We will be planting Great Northern Beans to grow plants. In your group, you must decide on an experiment that you want to perform.
  • Brainstorm Ideas. Choose one.
  • What do you want to find out? Can you develop an experiment to answer your question? Does your question make sense? Is it confusing?
  • Step 2: Hypothesis
  • What do you think will happen? BE SPECIFIC! Use complete sentences.
  • Step 3: Start developing a procedure
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