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Civil Rights Movement. Test #9 VUS.14. 1940s and 1950s: Segregation was still legal Southern culture was ingrained with the separation of blacks and whites Integration—the move away from segregation—will be difficult for many southern whites

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Civil Rights Movement


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Civil Rights Movement Test #9 VUS.14

    2. 1940s and 1950s: Segregation was still legal • Southern culture was ingrained with the separation of blacks and whites • Integration—the move away from segregation—will be difficult for many southern whites • 1950s: many African Americans and the Federal Government will take steps to end racial discrimination in the US

    3. NAACP • NAACP—National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • After WWII, the NAACP initiated many court cases to slowly do away with Plessy v. Ferguson • In many of the cases, the Supreme Court ruled that the separate facilities were in no way equal

    4. Began a strategy of desegregating graduate and specialized schools • If the nonwhite schools were seen as unequal, the white schools would be forced to integrate the African Americans into the white schools • Once the higher education facilities were dealt with, the NAACP would then focus on elementary and high schools • 1950: the NAACP will challenge segregation in schools head on

    5. Brown v . Board of Education of Topeka Kansas • Early 1950s: 17 states and Washington D. C. had laws segregating blacks and whites in public education • Only 16 states required their schools to be integrated • Many times, school systems in these states ignored the law and kept schools segregated • 1954: Brown v. Board of Education will be a court case that challenged segregation in public schools • This case will not be about a southern state, but Topeka Kansas

    6. The case involved a little African American girl—Linda Brown • She had to travel many miles to get to her school, an all black school • A white school was just a few blocks away from Linda’s house • Linda’s father wanted to know why his daughter could NOT attend the local white school instead of traveling miles by bus to the segregated black school • Linda’s father sued the Topeka, Kansas Board of Education • The Case traveled all the way to the Supreme Court

    7. Linda Brown

    8. Leading the charge for Mr. Brown and the NAACP was Thurgood Marshall • The case was heard for weeks in the Supreme Court • In the end, Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren handed down a unanimous decision • Separate educational facilities were NOT equal • School segregation was found to be ILLEGAL

    9. Thurgood Marshall

    10. Brown v. Board of Education will touch off similar cases around the US • In Virginia, a similar case will be held in Prince Edward county • The Virginia Legal defense team for the NAACP will be lead by Oliver Hill • Nearly ALL southern whites disagreed with the Supreme Court’s decision • Schools across the country were going to have to integrate black and white students • Many southern schools began to prepare against the decision • Many white students refused to attend the integrated schools

    11. Oliver Hill

    12. After the Brown decision, the NAACP will try to register African American students in previously all-white schools throughout the south • Unfortunately, many school systems will try and reject many of these students • Violence will erupt in many parts of the south

    13. Crisis at Central High • 5 days after the Brown decision, the Little Rock, Arkansas school board announced it would obey the decision • The Little Rock superintendant and the NAACP planned to place 9 African Americans students (the Little Rock Nine) in Central High School—a school with 2000 white students • The plan was to be put into effect for the 1957 school year

    14. The Little Rock Nine

    15. Several white segregationist groups planned to hold protests and stop the 9 African American students from entering the school • Governor OrvalFaubus of Arkansas called in the National Guard to block the entrance to the school • He DID NOT want the African American students in the school • Pres. Eisenhower met with Faubus and told him to stop defying the Supreme Court

    16. Gov. OrvalFaubus

    17. The National Guard was removed, and the 9 students were allowed in the next day • A mob of 1000 whites gathered to protest the integration of the 9 • The 9 were forced to leave school under police escort • Pres. Eisenhower was forced to intervene • Eisenhower ordered federal troops into Little Rock to protect the 9 students from the mob of whites

    18. Federal troops escorting the Little Rock 9 Little Rock 9 Video

    19. The next year (1958), Little Rock schools closed entirely • White students attended private schools, outside schools, or none at all • Most African American students did not attend at all • August 1959: Supreme Court ordered the Little Rock School Board to integrate the schools • The schools gave in and reopened the schools

    20. Virginia’s Response • Most schools in Virginia will responded to the Brown decision with massive resistance • US Senator Harry Byrd led the resistance movement in Virginia • Virginia governor Thomas Stanley said he would do all he could to keep Virginia schools segregated • Stanley shut schools down instead of integrating

    21. African American students in Virginia did not attend schools at all • Many private schools and academies were created for the white students • “White Flight”: many whites left the urban schools for the academies and private schools • Eventually, all Virginia schools will be reopened • By the mid1960s, most of Virginia’s schools had been integrated

    22. Montgomery Bus Boycotts • Dec. 1, 1955: Rosa Parks—a middle aged black woman—boarded a Montgomery, Alabama bus and sat in the middle of the bus • Blacks could sit in the middle only if the front (white section) was not full of whites • If the front were full, the blacks had to move to the back to make room for more white passengers • As the front started to fill up with whites, other black passengers got up and moved back, but not Rosa • One white man was left standing—Rosa would not give up her seat to the man

    23. Rosa Parks

    24. The bus driver said he was going to call the police if she did not give up her seat • She still refused • Rosa was arrested • The news of her arrest spread throughout the south • After her arrest, an immediate call went out to African Americans to boycott the Montgomery bus system • African Americans were hoping to put economic pressure on the bus system

    25. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. announced the bus boycott in his sermon, asking for his congregations’ support of the boycott • That Monday, the Boycott was a success • That Monday afternoon, many black community and church leaders met to organize more efforts of defiance • The group named themselves the Montgomery Improvement Association • Elected Martin Luther King, Jr. as the association’s president

    26. Dr. King speaking to his congregation about the bus boycott

    27. The bus boycott lasted nearly 400 days!! • City officials had not expected such a boycott • Bus companies started losing $ • City segregationists were angry • Many whites retaliated by • Bombing Dr. King’s house • Arresting and fining 88 African American leaders • The boycott ended when the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on busses was unconstitutional • Dec 20, 1956: Dr. King and the Montgomery Improvement Association had won a major victory

    28. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. • Dr. King will emerge as the unchallenged leader of the black protest movement • Dr. King helped the Bus Boycott gain national attention for the black civil rights movement • Dr. King was young when he became the spokesman for the civil rights movement • He was only 27 years old

    29. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    30. Background info. on Dr. King: • Dr. King grew up in a middle class home in Atlanta, GA • Attended Moorehouse College • At the age of 18, he decided to become a minister • Received his Ph. D. from Boston University

    31. After his success in the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Dr. King wanted to extend the same ideas into other civil rights areas around the US • Jan. 1957: Dr. King called 60 southern ministers to discuss nonviolent integration • At the meeting, the SCLC was formed • SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference • Dr. King became President of the SCLC

    32. Dr. King standing near an SCLC chapter

    33. The SCLC was to coordinate nonviolent resistance to segregation in schools, stores, busses, and hotels • Those protesting should carry out demonstrations • They should NOT fight with authorities • The SCLC held workshops to teach participants how to defend themselves from racial attacks • African American students across the nation began an attempt to integrate segregated lunch counters, hotels, and places of entertainment using sit-ins

    34. Sit-ins were nonviolent protests • Students would sit at lunch counters or businesses and refused to move until the business changed its segregation policy • College and high school students around the nation began to stage sit-ins • Southern stores and national chains were their main targets

    35. Greensboro Sit-ins

    36. SNCC • Dr. King’s secretary under the SCLC was Ella J. Baker • Baker was impressed with the sit-ins • She wanted to better organize the students • Baker created the SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) • Dr. King spoke to the 300 students that came for the 1st SNCC meeting • Dr. King spoke of nonviolence • “Jail not Bail”—civil disobedience • They would remain in jail and not seek bail to make a point • Causing social change by using nonviolence to change laws

    37. Freedom Rides • Organized by CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) • CORE wanted to test the effectiveness of the Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia • The decision prohibited racial segregation in public areas that served interstate travelers • May 4, 1961: A small interracial group of CORE members got on 2 busses • They traveled to southern segregated restrooms, waiting rooms, and restaurants in bus terminals between Washington DC and New Orleans • May 14: the CORE group was attacked by a mob outside Anniston, Alabama • One bus was set on fire and some of the CORE members were beaten

    38. Because of the violence, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy provided police escorts for the Freedom Riders as they traveled to other cities • The Freedom Riders met again with violence in Birmingham and Montgomery • The Freedom Rides did help to desegregate bus terminals in the south • More Freedom Rides were conducted throughout the year with success

    39. Freedom Rides Video

    40. Letter from Birmingham Jail • 1962: Birmingham, Alabama closed parks, playgrounds, swimming pools, and golf courses • An attempt to avoid desegregation of public facilities • Civil Rights leader planned massive demonstrations that would gradually increase in size • Wanted to keep the attention of TV and newspaper reporters • The police commissioner of Birmingham used police dogs and fire hoses to break up the demonstrations

    41. Dr. King was arrested on Good Friday because of the actions in Birmingham • Dr. King spent 2 weeks in jail • While in jail, Dr. King wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail” • The letter tried to explain his reasons for civil disobedience • Letter Video • After his release, Dr. King began using children as crusaders • The children were attacked by dogs, fire hoses, and beaten by the police • Public opinion quickly went in favor of the protestors and against the police

    42. Local leaders gave in • Larger department stores were desegregated • Dr. King called off the demonstrations • May 11, 1963: bombs exploded at Dr. King’s motel and at his brother’s house • Riots soon followed

    43. June 11, 1963: Pres. Kennedy commissioned the Alabama National Guard to enforce a court order requiring the admission of 2 African American students to the University of Alabama • The University was integrated, but not without protest by the Governor of Alabama, George Wallace • Wallace attempted to stand in the doorway to block the 2 students from entering • His attempt failed • Pres. Kennedy then announced he would be sending a civil rights bill into Congress

    44. Governor Wallace attempting to block the entrance to the University of Alabama

    45. March on Washington • August 28, 1963: a massive protest march was conducted on the nation’s capital • The march started as a cry for jobs • As planning furthered for the march, the goals shifted to include all civil rights goals • A key part of the march was to push for the passage of Pres. Kennedy’s civil rights bill • Thousands of demonstrators from around the nation participated in the march • The massive demonstration showed the nation that civil rights was something that would not go away easily

    46. Dr. King will make his famous “I have a dream” speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial • Dr. King's "I have a dream" speech

    47. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • After Pres. Kennedy’s assassination, Pres. Lyndon Johnson set out to pass Kennedy’s civil rights bill • The bill passed in the House but faced uncertainty in the Senate • Many southern Senators try to filibuster the bill—keep debating the bill but never really voting on the bill • The bill will eventually pass the Senate • July 2, 1964: Pres. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964