Morphology and word formation
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Morphology and Word Formation. Solutions to Test Paper tt. Word Formation. ineffectualisation isn’t a word you meet every day. Argue that it nevertheless is a word, by splitting it up into morphemes according to type.

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Morphology and word formation l.jpg

Morphology and Word Formation

Solutions to Test Paper

tt


Word formation l.jpg
Word Formation

ineffectualisation isn’t a word you meet every day.

Argue that it nevertheless is a word, by splitting it up into morphemes according to type.

Finally, draw a tree diagram for it, using the morpheme-type labels as the names of nodes.


Word formation3 l.jpg
Word Formation

in

ef

fect

ual

is

ation

is(e)


Word formation4 l.jpg

N Stem

V Stem

N Affix

A Stem

V Suffix

Neg Prefix

A stem

N Stem

A Suffix

N Prefix

Bound

Root

Word Formation

in

ef

fect

ual

is(e)

ation


Compounds l.jpg
Compounds

Form recognized compounds from the free morphemes below the table and insert them in the table according to the same principles as those behind the test samples. Use each morpheme only once:

Adjectives

strong

all

Nouns

spoon

pocket

rain

head

bow

Verbs

walk

sleep

pick

carry

feed


Compounds6 l.jpg
Compounds

Form recognized compounds from the free morphemes below the table and insert them in the table according to the same principles as those behind the test samples. Use each morpheme only once:

Adjectives

strong

all

Nouns

spoon

pocket

rain

head

bow

Verbs

walk

sleep

pick

carry

feed


Derivational morphology l.jpg
Derivational Morphology

Derivational morphemes convert members of (‘input’) word classes into members of the same or different (‘output’) word classes. For example, -ish turns 1) a N into an A: boy + ish  boyish, or 2) an A into another A (with a different meaning): pink + ish  pinkish. Judging from the list of words provided below, determine the input word class and the output word class for the following derivational affixes. Write the stem + input class label on the line to the left, the output class label on the line to the right of the arrow (note that the final vowel may diasappear or change shape, that the final consonant may double, and that the stem may otherwise change):

  • a. _______ + -al ___; b. _______ + -ous ___ ; c. _______ + -ify  ___;

  • d. _______ +-ful  ___; e. _______ + -ity ___ ; f. _______ +-en ___;

  • g. _______ +-dom  ___; h. _______ +-able  ___; i. a- + _______  ___ ;

  • ex- + _______  ___ ; k. sub- + _______  ___ ; l. re- + _______  ___ ;

  • virtue, moral, health, wife, aquit, enemy, print, minimal, white, free, read, glory.


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t- V

N

acquittal

e- N

A

virtuous

N

V

glorify

N

A

healthful

N

N

enmity

A

V

whiten

a. ____________ + -al ___

b. ____________ + -ous ___

c. ____________ + -ify  ___

d. ____________ +-ful  ___

e. ____________ + -ity ___

f. ____________ +-en ___

virtue

moral

health

wife

aquit

enemy

print

minimal

white

free

read

glory


Slide9 l.jpg

A

N

freedom

V

A

readable

A

A

amoral

N

N

exwife

A

A

subminimal

V

V

reprint

g. ____________ +-dom  ___

h. ____________ +-able  ___

i. a- + ____________  ___

j. ex- + ____________  ___

k. sub- + ____________  ___

l. re- + ____________  ___

moral

wife

print

minimal

free

read


Derivational morphology10 l.jpg

N

A

virtue

+ al

virtual

A

V

+ ize 

minimalize

minimal

N

A

glory

+ ous 

glorious

N

N

wife

+ dom 

wifedom

V

V

re + read

reread

Derivational Morphology

There are other possibilities:

….


Derivational morphology11 l.jpg

N

V

N

V

sub +

print

?subprint

A

A

sub +

white

?subwhite

Derivational Morphology

… including some dubious, but potential, ones:

The crux of the matter is that derivational morphology is only

partly subject to generalization


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