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Chapter 1: Basic Word Structure

Chapter 1: Basic Word Structure

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Chapter 1: Basic Word Structure

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  1. Chapter 1:Basic Word Structure

  2. Objectives • Analyze words by dividing them into component parts. • Relate the medical terms to the structure & function of the human body. • Major focus is to explain the terms in context (not merely memorization) • Be aware of spelling & pronunciation problems. • Some terms are pronounced alike but spelled differently, which accounts for different meanings • Example: ilium & ileum • Ilium = part of the hip bone • Ileum = part of the small intestine

  3. Word Parts • Basic types of word parts are used to create medical terms: • Word roots : foundation of the term • Suffixes : word ending • Prefixes : word beginning • Combining vowel: vowel (usually o) that links the root to the suffix or the root to another root • Combining form: combination of the root & the combining vowel

  4. Word Root • The word root is the main part or foundation of a word. All words have word roots. • In medical terminology, the root may indicate a body part or body system or colors. • - cardial – heart • - pancreatitis – pancreas • - cyanosis – blue • A medical word may be simply be a root or it may be a combination of word elements. • - sclera – white of the eye • - electr/o/cardi/o/gram – 2 roots and a suffix

  5. Combining Form • Many words would be difficult to pronounce if written without a vowel to join the word roots. • When you take a word root and add a vowel it becomes a combining form. This vowel is usually an “o”, and it is called a combining vowel. • - cyst/o • - therm/o • The combining vowel is used before suffixes that begin with a consonant and before another word root. Prefixes are not included in this rule.

  6. Rules for Combining Forms • A combining vowel is used when the suffix begins with a consonant. • A combining vowel is not used when the suffix begins with a vowel. • Gastritis, not “gastroitis” • A combining form is always used when combining two or more root words. • Gastroenterology, not “gastrenterology” • A prefix does not require a combining vowel. Do not place a combining vowel between a prefix and a root word.

  7. Learning Check • How do you Combine the root (cardi) , meaning “heart,” with the suffix (-logy ), meaning “study of,” to form a word meaning “study of the heart.”?

  8. Common Combining Forms • Aden/o – gland • Arthr /o – joint • Bi/o – life • carcin/o – cancerous, cancer • Cardi/o – heart • Cephal/o – head • Cerebr/o – cerebrum (largest part of the brain) • Cis/o – to cut • Crin/o – to secrete • Cyst/o – urinary bladder; a sac or a cyst • Cyt/o – cell • Derm/o – skin • Electr/o – electricity

  9. Common Combining Forms • Encephal/o – brain • Ener/o – intestines • Erythr/o – red • Gastr/o – stomach • Glyc/o – sugar • Gnos/o – knowledge • Gynec/o – woman, female • Hemat/o – blood • Hepat/o – liver • Iatr/o – treatment, physician • Leuk/o – white • Log/o study of • Nephr/o – kidney • Neur/o nerve

  10. Common Combining Forms • Onc/o – tumor • Ophthalm/o – eye • Oste/o – bone • Path/o – disease • Ped/o – child • Psych/o – mind • Radi/o – x-rays • Ren/o – kidney • Rhin/o – nose • Sarc/o – flesh • Sect/o – to cut • Thromb/o – clot, clotting • Ur/o – urinary tract, urine

  11. Suffix • Suffixes usually, but not always, indicate the procedure, condition, disorder, or disease. • Examples: • cardiomegaly • gastralgia • neuritis • Changing the suffix, changes the meaning of the word. • - dent/al – “al” means pertaining to • - dent/ist – “ist” means specialist

  12. Common Suffixes • Meaning “pertaining to”: • -ac • -al • -ary • -ar • -ial • -ic • -ous • -genic • Meaning “abnormal condition”: • -ago • -ia • -osis • -ism

  13. Other common suffixes: • -algia – pain • -cyte – cell • -ectomy – excision, removal • -emia – blood condition • -globin – protein • -gram – record • -ion – process • -ist – specialist • -itis – inflammation • -logy – process of study • -oma – tumor or mass • -opsy – process of viewing • -ostomy – surgically creating an opening

  14. Other common suffixes: • -otomy – incision into • -pathy – disease • -plasty – surgical repair • -phobia – irrational fear • -paresis – weakness • -plegia – paralysis • -rrhea – discharge, flow • -scope – instrument to view or examine • -scopy – process of visually examining • -sis – state or condition of • -tomy– instrument to cut • -y – process, condition

  15. Group Activity • In groups of two, come up with at least one example of 8 of the 11 suffixes

  16. DETERMINING MEANINGS ON THE BASIS OF WORD PARTS • Write the word and decipher these medical terms based on their word parts: • cardi- + -plasty • gastr- + -itis • neur- + -algia • cardi- + -sclerosis • gastr- + -ostomy • neur- + -ectomy

  17. Prefixes • Prefixes usually, but not always, indicate location, time, negation, number, or status. • Examples: • pericardium • epigastric • polyneuritis

  18. Common Prefixes • Negation • a-, an- = no, without, not • im-, in- = not • Position • ante-, pre-, pro- = before • Epi- = above • Hyper- = excessive, above, more than normal • hypo-, intra-, sub- = under, below • inter- = between • medi- = middle • post- = after, behind • retro- = behind, backward

  19. Common Prefixes • Time • pre- - before • post- - after • Measurement & Numbers • micro- - small • macro- - large • hyper- - excessive • multi-, poly- - many • primi- - first • mon-, uni- - 1 • bi-, di- - 2 • tri- - 3 • quadri- - 4

  20. Taking Terms Apart • To determine a word’s meaning by looking at the component pieces, you must first separate it into word parts. • Always start at the end of the word, with the suffix, and work toward the beginning. • As you separate the word parts, identify the meaning of each. Identifying the meaning of each part should give you a definition of the term. • Because some word parts have more than one meaning, it also is necessary to determine the context in which the term is being used.

  21. SINGULAR VS. PLURAL Greek • Singular Suffixes • -on • Spermatozoon, ganglion • -ma • Carcinoma, lipoma • -sis • Crisis, prognosis • -nx • Larynx, pharynx • Plural Suffixes • -a • Spermatozoa, ganglia • -mata • Carcinomata, lipomata • -ses • Crises, prognoses • -ges • Larynges, pharynges

  22. SINGULAR VS. PLURAL Latin • Singular Suffixes • -a • Vertebra, conjunctiva • -us • Bacillus, bronchus • -um • Bacterium, ilium • -is • Testis • Plural Suffixes • -ae • Vertebrae, conjunctivae • -i • Bacilli, bronchi • -a • Bacteria, ilia • -es • Testes