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Toddlers PowerPoint Presentation

Toddlers

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Toddlers

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  1. Toddlers Chapter 11 Physical Development

  2. Growth • Slows after 1st year • Heredity affects height more • Environment-genes influence weight, but environment influences it more • After 2 yrs-slower but steadier • 2-3” per year • 6 lbs per year, till age,11 for girls, 13 for boys

  3. Head=1/4 total height (adults is 1/10) • Posture becomes straighter-easier to walk • After 2, full set of baby teeth • (20 of them)

  4. Large Muscles • Arms & legs • Walking-frustrated, fearful, lighter before heavier, girls before boys • Arms out-hard to balance with large head or if distracted

  5. Small Muscles • Hands & fingers • 1st year-can hold with thumb & index finger • By 2 years, some show hand preference-still switch a lot till 6-7

  6. Chapter 12Intellectual Development • Eager & curious • 12-18 months-Piaget-learn by discovering new ways to solve problems

  7. Exploring-”little scientists”, getting into everything, repeat actions • Actions involve working toward a goal; pulling, rolling, shaking objects

  8. 18-24 months-beginning of thought • Think about what they do before they do it • They can begin to figure it out mentally before testing it out physically • For Example: a puzzle

  9. Also show thinking by imitating • For example: feeding a doll, putting on make-up

  10. Children also use thinking to reach a goal • For example: using a step stool

  11. Hiding games, thinking about where an adult would hide it

  12. They continue to use their senses to learn about shape, size, color, texture • (red ball, big dog)

  13. Thinking & Language • Must associate word with object (milk compared to juice) and must recall the word • Parentese-high-pitched style of speaking, face children, shorter sentences & speak in a sing song fashion

  14. Spoken language develops at a faster rate than any other time • Adults need to pronounce words correctly-don’t force children to repeat a word again & again; stress • Wiring to learn language is very active

  15. Number of words children know is related to how much parents & others speak to them • 12-18 months-1 Word sentences • “Up,” “Mommy,” “Hurt” • 19 months-2 or more words • Fastest growth at 30 months

  16. Rate of talking is influenced by: • Hearing • Interest in speaking • Mental abilities • Gender • Need to speak • An interesting environment

  17. Social & Emotional DevelopmentChapter 13 • How other’s react to toddlers, affects how they see & understand themselves • Self-esteem-feeling good about yourself & what you can do

  18. Drive for independence: aware of how they look, what belongs (& doesn’t) belong to them, what they can & can not do

  19. More aware of other’s feelings toward them • This lays the foundation for pride, shame, guilt & jealousy • More aware they can affect others • + affection • - defiance

  20. Erikson’s Theory • 1st stage 0-1 yr. • TRUST vs MISTRUST • 2nd stage 1-3 yrs. AUTONOMY vs SHAME & DOUBT • Autonomy-feeling of being able to do by yourself

  21. Toddlers want to be INDEPENDENT-may misjudge skills is., break things or get hurt or not understand possible results

  22. Adults need to set limits, but this may lead some children to become defiant • Consistently criticizing or overprotecting leads to shame & doubt

  23. To Do: • Have safe choices; offer 2 alternatives, and you need to honor their choice • Step in & redirect, before they get hurt • Having more than 1 care giver can help them with socializing

  24. Emotions • Can’t separate what’s real from pretend • Emotions caused by imagination are just as real

  25. Fears-develop more rapidly after 2 yrs; know more to fear • Act out in play • Never tease or push into scary situations • Avoid TV if under 2; 2 & older, 2 hrs. or less

  26. Anxiety • Separation anxiety • Night

  27. Anger • Temper tantrums • Often appear in 2nd yr. • Meant to attract attention, so ignore them