Who is a toddler? • A child between the ages of 1 and 3 years old. • Before the age of one they are considered an infant. • When they hit 3 years old they are considered Preschool age.
Physical Development • After infancy, growth in height and weight slows. • Appetites decrease • Gain lots of teeth! • Body proportions gradually change. Infants have large heads in proportion to their bodies---this becomes more of a natural proportion.
Physical Development • Gross motor skills: skills that use large muscles (back , legs, shoulders, arms, etc) • Climbing and walking is mastered • Begin to push themselves on wheeled toys then pedal by end of their second year.
Physical Development • Fine motor skills: skills that require use of small muscles (fingers, wrists, ankles, etc.) • Improved hand eye coordination • Stack blocks, string beads, simple puzzles, turn pages of a book, scribble with crayons, turn doorknobs, feed themselves.
Physical Development • Toilet Training • Children around the age of two are physically and intellectually ready to begin toilet training. • Girls tend to master the skill earlier than boys.
Intellectual Development • Ask “Why” • Discover their world by satisfying their curiosity. • Use trial and error, repetition, and imitation • Increased attention span • Increased memory
Intellectual Development • Remember Piaget’s first period of intellectual development was the sensorimotor period (ages birth-2) • Piaget’s second period of intellectual development– Preoperational Period • Covers ages 2-7 • A period when children start to think symbolically and imaginatively. They rely less on motor abilities and more on thinking to direct behavior. • Examples: Make believe play, inventing and creating
Intellectual Development • Language • Start by answering yes and no, pointing, and following simple commands. • By two years old they have a growing vocabulary of 50 to 300 words. Can name familiar objects.
Intellectual Development Children try to understand new information 2 ways: Assimilation: children take in new information and try to make it fit with what they currently know and understand. (example: thinking a black and white spotted dog is a cow) Accommodation: children change their thinking to make new information fit. (learning the difference between a dog and a cow)
Emotional Development • Still learning control • Prone to impulsiveness and quick mood swings • Develop a sense of independence • Develop fears (spiders, water, etc.) • Sense of security continues as a primary emotional need for toddlers.
Social Development • PLAY is how they are learn. Solitary Play: Playing alone (1-2 years old) Parallel Play: Playing alone but next to another child. (2-3 years old) • Begin to learn social rules