Chapter 4INDEPENDENCE! Section 1: The Seeds of Unrest Section 2: The Shot Heard Round the World Section 3: Independence Declared Section 4: An American Victory
Section 1: The Seeds of Unrest Objectives: • How did the British Crown respond to Pontiac’s Rebellion? • Why did the British government pass the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act? • How did the colonists respond to the Stamp Act? • What events led to the Boston Massacre?
Section 1: The Seeds of Unrest Crown response to Pontiac’s Rebellion • issued the Proclamation of 1763, barring settlement west of the Appalachians and requiring traders to obtain permission before entering the territory • attempted to tax the colonists to recover the costs of fighting the rebellion
Section 1: The Seeds of Unrest Sugar Act and Stamp Act The Sugar Act and the Stamp Act were passed because the British government was deeply in debt from fighting the French and Indian War and Indian uprisings.
Section 1: The Seeds of Unrest Colonial response to the Stamp Act • Colonial assemblies met to protest taxation without representation. • Colonial merchants signed nonimportation agreements. • Some public demonstrations turned violent.
Section 1: The Seeds of Unrest Events leading to the Boston Massacre • Parliament passed the Townshend Acts in 1767; writs of assistance used to enforce them. • British government dissolved the Massachusetts assembly for its opposition. • Protest escalated into boycotts and violence; British troops sent to Boston. • British troops opened fire on crowd of protesters.
Section 2: The Shot Heard Round the World Objectives: • Why did the colonists in Massachusetts stage the Boston Tea Party? • Why did Parliament pass the Intolerable Acts? • What events led to the battles at Lexington and Concord? • What actions did the Second Continental Congress take?
Section 2: The Shot Heard Round the World The Boston Tea Party • The Tea Act of 1773 was passed to bail out the British East India Company; it gave the company privileges that no American merchants had. • The Governor of Massachusetts refused colonists’ demands that three shiploads of tea be returned to Britain.
Section 2: The Shot Heard Round the World The Intolerable Acts • passed to punish Boston and the rest of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party • designed to strengthen British control over all the colonies
Section 2: The Shot Heard Round the World Events leading to battles of Lexington and Concord • Colonial unity was strengthened by opposition to Intolerable Acts. • First Continental Congress met; called for ban on trade with Britain. • Gage was ordered to put down rebellion; moved to seize rebel military supplies. • Paul Revere rode; armed colonists confronted British soldiers.
Section 2: The Shot Heard Round the World Second Continental Congress • Continental Army established; George Washington chosen to command • fought the Battle of Boston • sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George • voted to declare independence
Section 3: Independence Declared Objectives: • How did the Declaration of Independence explain America’s break with Great Britain? • How did Americans react to the Declaration of Independence? • What major problems did the Continental Army face? • What roles did different groups of people play in the war?
Section 3: Independence Declared Declaration of Independence • listed King George III’s misdeeds • established the doctrine of unalienable rights • declared that people have the right to abolish government that deprives them of unalienable rights
Section 3: Independence Declared Reactions to Declaration • Some Patriots celebrated and even destroyed British icons. • Loyalists opposed or ignored the Declaration; some fled. • Some Patriots wanted women included in the government.
Section 3: Independence Declared Army problems • lack of important supplies, including food, clothing, and other necessities • harsh weather • disease • shortage of enlistments
Section 3: Independence Declared African Americans • Some fought for the British to gain freedom. • Many former slaves fought for Patriots.
Section 3: Independence Declared American Indians Many supported the British, who promised to protect land rights.
Section 3: Independence Declared Women • Some served as spies and messengers; a few as soldiers. • Many accompanied troops to work as cooks, laundresses, and nurses. • Others made war materials and kept colonial economy going.
Section 4: An American Victory Objectives: • What was the importance of the Battles of Trenton and Saratoga? • How did the Patriots defeat the British in the West and the South? • What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris?
Section 4: An American Victory Battle of Trenton • first major offensive • raised American morale
Section 4: An American Victory Battle of Saratoga • encouraged European countries to become U.S. allies • raised American morale
Section 4: An American Victory The West and the South • Small detachments of troops gave Patriots speed and flexibility. • Small-scale attacks allowed Patriots to attack more places. • Guerrilla warfare tactics allowed Patriots to take advantage of local geography and to destabilize the British.
Section 4: An American Victory The Treaty of Paris • granted the United States independence • transferred the land from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi, and from the Great Lakes south to Florida, to the Americans • declared that the Americans should pay any debts owed to the British