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Terms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Terms. Galleries Tunnels formed by insects chewing through bark Spot Patterns Holes in bark where insects enter Pitch Tubes Small Exit holes in the bark. More Terms. Skeletonize To eat all but the veins of the leaves Necrotic Spots Areas of dead spots Flagging

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terms
Terms
  • Galleries
    • Tunnels formed by insects chewing through bark
  • Spot Patterns
    • Holes in bark where insects enter
  • Pitch Tubes
    • Small Exit holes in the bark
more terms
More Terms
  • Skeletonize
    • To eat all but the veins of the leaves
  • Necrotic Spots
    • Areas of dead spots
  • Flagging
    • Dying of branch tips
forest pathology

Forest Pathology

The study of forest tree diseases for the purpose of preventing and controlling them

destroyed timber
Destroyed Timber

Other causes are weather, grazing animals, and air pollutants

what is a disease
What is a Disease?
  • Disorder that is caused by something specific with consistent symptoms
4 types of disease
4 types of disease
  • Fungi
    • Can attack all parts of a tree
    • Can cause cankers
    • Reproduce through spores
    • Lots of good types of fungi
    • Spores:
      • Single or small group of united cells
      • Produced by fruiting bodies (ex. mushrooms)
      • Used to Identify a plant disease
      • Like dark and moist locations
  • Bacteria
    • Single Cell
    • Can be good
    • Typically stay on the surface of a tree and find a wound and enter
    • Can produce cankers or galls
  • Virus
    • Not a plant or an animal
    • Cannot be seen
    • Cannot live outside the host
    • Do not feed on plant tissue
    • Slowly kills a tree, makes a tree loose it’s vigor
  • Parasitic Plants
    • Flowering plants
    • Produce seeds normally
    • Have no chlorophyll
    • Sometimes don’t have roots
    • Takes host trees resources
annosus root rot
Annosus Root Rot
  • Fungi
  • Attacks Conifer trees
  • Enters through fresh cuts
  • Spreads by root contact
  • Causes tan/brown conks with white pores
  • Mortality after 2-3 years
black knot
Black Knot
  • Fungi
  • Common in Cherry Trees
  • Rarely fatal
  • Causes black swellings on branches
    • White fungus grows over the swelling
  • Occurs in the spring
  • Pruning Helps
brown spot needle blight
Brown Spot Needle Blight
  • Fungi
  • Attacks Long Leaf Pines
    • Seedlings die after multiple defoliations
  • Boat shaped spores
  • Identify with a microscope
  • Yellow band on needles
cedar apple rust
Cedar Apple Rust
  • Fungi
  • Eastern Red Cedars
    • Form golf-ball sized galls
      • Galls are brown with orange “horns”
  • Crabapples
    • Yellow spots form on leaves
    • Leaves curl and eventually turn brown
  • Typically does little harm
  • Galls can be picked off
fusiform rust
Fusiform Rust
  • Fungi
  • Slash and Loblolly Pines
  • If attacked in the first 5 years of tree life, death is likely
  • Gall forms
    • Orange spores
  • Trees break at gall
needle cast
Needle Cast
  • Fungi
  • Attacks Conifers
  • Forest stand trees usually recover
  • Can only identify with a microscope
  • Turns needles yellow/brown
  • Tree gets a scorched appearance
pine needle rust
Pine Needle Rust
  • Fungi
  • Attacks young conifers, especially yellow pines
  • Doesn’t typically kill
  • White/orange blisters on needles
pitch canker
Pitch Canker
  • Fungi
  • Attacks pines
  • Enters through a wound
    • Mortality is common
  • Cause lesions that produce a canker
  • Causes shoot die back
  • Resin flow in affected area
slime flux
Slime Flux
  • Bacteria
  • Attacks hardwoods
    • Diameter less than 12 inches
  • Causes bleeding cankers
    • Clear flowing sap that is toxic to bark
    • Attracts insects
  • Bad smell
mistletoe
Mistletoe
  • Parasitic Plant
  • Hardwoods
    • Especially hardwoods
  • Weakens, deforms and makes tree more susceptible to other diseases and insects
  • Not severe disease
  • Perennial, broad-leafed evergreen at crown