SOCIOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS What are sociological institutions Issues that challenge the family institution
WHAT IS A SOCIAL INSITUTION • A cluster of social structures that collectively meet one or more of the basic needs of society • They include • Family • Education • Politics/Government • Economics • Religion • Sport • While each of these institutions is organized differently, changes is quiet different ways and is responsible for different functions or needs, they are also interdependent • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOFFqClLR3I&safe=active
WHAT IS A SOCIAL INSITUTION • Many speculate that the family is the most dynamic of the institutions, in that is it changing most rapidly • In the past the functions of economics and education where taken care of under the umbrella of family • The greater diversity of family forms today also increase the expectations and functions on the institution
CHALLENGES OF THE MODREN FAMILY • There are a variety of issues that face the modern family dynamic • We are going to investigate family violence, elder abuse, blended families and childless marriages
FAMILY VIOLENCE IN CANADA STATISTICAL PROFILE 2011 SELF-REPORTED SPOUSAL VIOLENCE, 2009 • Similar to 2004, 6% of Canadians with a current or former spouse reported being physically or sexually victimized by their spouse in the 5 years preceding the survey. • The proportion of Canadians who reported spousal violence was similar across the majority of provinces. The exceptions were in Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec where the proportions were below the national average. • Overall, the seriousness of violence experienced in spousal incidents remained stable between 2004 and 2009.
FAMILY VIOLENCE IN CANADA STATISTICAL PROFILE 2011 • Those aged 25 to 34 years old were three times more likely than those aged 45 and older to state that they had been physically or sexually assaulted by their spouse. • In 2009, victims of spousal violence were less likely to report the incident to police than in 2004. Just under one-quarter (22%) in 2009 compared to 2004 (28%) from 2004. • As in 2004, close to one in five (17%) Canadians said that they had experienced some form of emotional or financial abuse in their current or previous relationship, with put-downs and name calling being the most common form of abuse. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_30gOZ7kYg&safe=active
FAMILY VIOLENCE IN CANADA STATISTICAL PROFILE 2011 ELDER ABUSE BY FAMILY • In 2009, police reported over 2,400 senior victims of violent crime by a family member • Although the overall rate of violent victimization was higher for senior men than senior women, family-related violent victimization was higher among senior women. Senior men were more likely to be victimized by an acquaintance or a stranger than a family member. • Spouses and grown children were the most common perpetrators of family violence against senior women, while grown children were most often the perpetrators of family violence against senior men.
FAMILY VIOLENCE IN CANADA STATISTICAL PROFILE 2011 • Just over half (53%) of police-reported family violence against seniors involved common assaults, the least serious form of assault. • Six in ten police-reported incidents of family violence against seniors did not result in physical injury. When physical injuries were sustained, the vast majority were relatively minor in nature. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhDJEpWJObA&safe=active There were 160 family related homicides against seniors between 2000-2009
FAMILY VIOLENCE IN CANADA STATISTICAL PROFILE 2011 • FAMILY VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN AND YOUTH • Police-reported data for 2009 indicate that children and youth under the age of 18 were most likely to be sexually victimized or physically assaulted by someone they knew (85% of incidents). • Nearly 55,000 children and youth were the victims of a sexual offence or physical assault in 2009, about 3 in 10 of which were perpetrated by a family member.
FAMILY VIOLENCE IN CANADA STATISTICAL PROFILE 2011 • Six in ten children and youth victims of family violence were assaulted by their parents. The youngest child victims (under the age of three years) were most vulnerable to violence by a parent. • In 2009, the rate of family-related sexual offences was more than four times higher for girls than for boys. • The rate of physical assault was similar for girls and boys.
BLENDED FAMILY • A family formed when at least one of the partners in a marriage has been married before and has a child or children from a previous marriage • Blended families create a new kind of extended family, not blood related • 32% of households in the United States contain biologically unrelated individuals • Children from previous marriages are one factor in higher divorce rates among second marriages
BLENDED FAMILY • ISSUES FOR BLENDED FAMILIES • Sociologist have identified three major issues for blended families http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KiWSVbhNnvE&safe=active • Money Difficulties • Financial demands from former families generally result in lower overall incomes for blended families • Stepchildren’s Antagonism • Hoping for a reunion of original parents, some step children may attempt to derail the new marriage • Even five years later 1/3 of stepchildren continue to strongly disapprove of their parents divorce • Unclear Roles • Issues involving control and discipline reflect power struggles, these more likely during teenage years • Ex-spouses can either help or hinder the establishment of clearly defined roles
CHILDLESS MARRIAGES • In the past, women without children were seen a failing to fulfill their duty as wives • In some religions, the inability to have children is one of the few allowed reasons for divorcing a women • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62CEuCnO4QQ&safe=active
CHILDLESS MARRIAGEShttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Blp_ZUF7Nac&safe=active • Canada’s latest batch of 2011 census numbers shows that nearly half of Canadian couples (44.5 percent) are “without children”. • Childless by Choice • People who deliberately do not have children, not as a result of bad luck or infertility • http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/childless-by-choice-a-decision-you-may-live-to-regret/ • Cohabitation • Living with someone in a marriage like arrangement without the legal obligations and responsibilities of formal marriage • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_uXXK6IQOfY&safe=active
CHILDLESS MARRIAGES • There has always been pressure, typically disproportionately on the mothers, when both people work outside the home • There has been some progress in Canada • http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2008/03/04/housework-men.html • However there are still pressures that many men do not understand • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UPrxFwUOCtI&safe=active • Dual Income No Kids • Marriages with two incomes and no children • This is one variety of childless by choice
CHILDLESS MARRIAGES • THREE ADVANTAGES OF BEING CHILDFREE • You have time for self-care and for other relationships. • I love spending time alone with my husband, and we have a lot of this due to not being busy raising a family. • You can dedicate your time to your career or to other interests that will help the world as a whole. • Let’s face it, parenting takes a lot of time; time experts say that it takes eight hours a day to raise two children to the age of 18.. • The world will be less crowded and resources less depleted. • Think about a future with fewer mouths to feed and the possibility that we might restore diminishing natural resources such as life in the sea and fresh water.
CHILDLESS MARRIAGES • Three disadvantages of being childfree: • You will be a misfit among your peer group. • One in five women who have reached the end of their childbearing years is not a mother—that means that four out of five are! • You will miss out of what many consider to be a crucial life role. • I’ve missed an entire chapter of life that is considered by many to be essential. Many women are just, at my age, returning to work after years of part-time employment or none at all. • You won’t have anyone to take care of you in your old age. • Not having kids, I’m aware of how critical it is for me to be making plans for my future, whether this is putting my wishes down in writing or saving up to be able to pay for the help I’ll need.