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Drainage Methods, Laws and Legislation. Project Presentation from 2001 used for notes 2002. Overview. Methods of Drainage Drainage Effects on Water Quality Laws and Regulations for Drainage. Introduction. Purpose: to remove excess water Benefits: Reduced salinity under irrigation

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Drainage Methods, Laws and Legislation


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drainage methods laws and legislation

Drainage Methods, Laws and Legislation

Project Presentation from 2001

used for notes 2002

overview
Overview
  • Methods of Drainage
  • Drainage Effects on Water Quality
  • Laws and Regulations for Drainage
introduction
Introduction
  • Purpose:
    • to remove excess water
  • Benefits:
    • Reduced salinity under irrigation
    • Reduced soil erosion
    • Better seed germination and establishment
    • Better plant growth, health, and yield
    • Less wear and tear on machinery
    • Early seeding date and more flexibility
methods of drainage
Methods of Drainage
  • An agricultural system of draining fields commonly consists of:

1) A Field Drainage System

2) A Main Drainage System

      • move water from field system to outlet

3) An Outlet

      • terminal point of discharge into open water system
field drainage system
Field Drainage System
  • Removes excess water from soil:
    • use of one or more drains
    • possible use of pump to promote flow
  • Two main types of systems common

1) Subsurface drainage

2) Surface drainage

  • Type of system chosen depends on problems present
subsurface drainage
Subsurface Drainage
  • Used on soils where excess water easily infiltrates into ground, raising the water table
    • ie: sandy soils under irrigation

soils with high water table

  • Three main field drains used;

1) Pipe Drains

2) Deep Ditches

3) Well Pumping

subsurface drainage 1 pipe drain systems
Subsurface Drainage1) Pipe Drain Systems
  • Most common method in temperate agriculture
  • Used for salinity control for irrigation
  • System consists of field and collector drains
    • single-sided entry collector pipes
    • double-sided entry collector pipes
    • Singular system
    • Composite system
subsurface drainage 1 pipe drain systems9
Subsurface Drainage1) Pipe Drain Systems
  • Three common layouts:
    • 1) Natural system
      • common when a few larger depressions present
    • 2) Herringbone system
      • common when more smaller depressions present
      • on sloping land where only partial drainage required
    • 3) Parallel grid system
      • fairly level and uniform fields with uniformly high water table
subsurface drainage 1 pipe drain systems12
Subsurface Drainage1) Pipe Drain Systems
  • Pipe drain materials:
    • concrete and clay tile
    • concrete pipe
    • corrugated metal pipe
    • bituminous-fibre pipe
    • plastic pipe
  • Option of pipe envelope
subsurface drainage 2 deep ditch system
Subsurface Drainage2) Deep Ditch System
  • Ditches can be used to remove excess ground and surface water
  • Cheaper to install
  • Deep ditches restrict machinery operations
  • Loss of up to 10% land with ditches
  • Higher maintenance required to maintain good grade for discharge
subsurface drainage 3 pump drainage
Subsurface Drainage3) Pump Drainage
  • Not very common, effective under one or more of following conditions:
    • flat land with high water table
    • permeable aquifers exists
    • aquifer deep enough for installation of well
    • ground water under artesian pressure
    • ground water high quality for irrigation
    • cheap power
surface drainage
Surface Drainage
  • Used on agricultural land with high tendency of water ponding due to slow infiltration rate
    • fine textured soils
    • impermeable soil layer close to surface
    • land unevenness causing collection in depressions
surface drainage16
Surface Drainage
  • Drainage commonly through open ditch systems or mole systems
  • Four types of open shallow ditch systems:

1) Depression ditch

2) Parallel non-passable ditch

3) Parallel passable ditch

4) Cross-slope ditch

surface drainage open ditch systems
Surface Drainage- Open Ditch Systems

1) Depression ditch system:

  • fields with limited number of pronounced, elongated depressions
  • depressions drained individually or connected

2) Parallel non-passable ditch system:

  • fields that are fairly flat to highly uneven
  • ditches run parallel in field, spaced to amount of water collected
  • ditches non-passable with machinery
surface drainage open ditch systems18
Surface Drainage- Open Ditch Systems

3) Parallel passable ditch system:

  • soils with similar characteristics as parallel non-passable ditch system
  • ditches passable with machinery

4) Cross-slope ditch system:

  • applicable to gently sloping land
  • ditches placed perpendicular to slope
  • land cultivated down slope
surface drainage mole systems
Surface Drainage- Mole Systems
  • Used for soils with impermeable soil layers, allowing shallow drainage of excess water
  • Mole plough pulled behind tractor creating tunnels
  • Promotes shallow flow of water
drainage effects on water quality
Drainage Effects on Water Quality
  • Reasons for drainage of cropland
  • Need for concern
  • Contamination of water bodies
    • rivers, creeks, estuaries
nutrients
Nutrients
  • Nitrate (NO3-) tied up in water through runoff from surface
  • Subsurface leaching through soil profile
  • Tolerable to rate when weeds stimulated to grow
nutrients22
Nutrients
  • Phosphorus (PO4-2)
  • Tolerable to 0.05mg/L
chemicals
Chemicals
  • Herbicide residue
    • ends up in water bodies
  • Pesticides
    • DDT scare
aquatic life
Aquatic Life
  • Major concern as microorganisms are very important
  • Mutations, disease and death of aquatic animals
rainfall
Rainfall
  • Intensity and duration of rainfall can wash contaminants down drainage ditch/canal
  • Excess rainfall
    • Surface drainage
    • Subsurface drainage
salinity
Salinity
  • Concern as salt can move from one area to another
  • High water table years
drainage laws and legislation
Drainage Laws and Legislation
  • Legislation History
  • Present Day
  • Drainage Approval Process
  • Drainage Complaints
legislation history
Legislation History
  • “Common Law doctrine”
  • hindered any drainage schemes that would involve the deposit of excess water into a water course or neighbor’s property
  • flowing water a common resource, not an article of property
  • did not work well
north west territories irrigation act 1894
North West Territories Irrigation Act - 1894
  • Government retained ownership of water
  • only people who have a title from crown grant before 1894 can have possession today
  • Crown owns virtually all bodies of water, past and present
water rights act of 1931
Water Rights Act of 1931
  • First regulatory water resource statute
  • Transferred jurisdiction from federal to provincial
  • after amendments, all drainage projects need license
  • can now sue for losses incurred
drainage control act of 1980
Drainage Control Act of 1980
  • Prohibits the construction or continued operation of any drainage systems without a permit
  • replaced all common law
  • provided a mechanism for settling disputes
  • lacked resources for proper enforcement
water corporation act 1984
Water Corporation Act - 1984
  • Better known as “Sask. Water”
  • monitors and grants permits for drainage, irrigation and all other uses
  • still a lot of unapproved drainage
slide33

“No person shall commence the construction, alteration, or operation of any works unless he/she has first obtained the written approval of Sask. Water to do so”

but you can
But you can…...
  • channel clear
  • consolidate sloughs
  • install culverts
drainage approval process
Drainage Approval Process
  • Pick up application
  • return with $
  • review for potential conflicts
  • surveying
  • advertise intentions
  • “Approval to Construct Works”
  • “Approval to Operate Works”
drainage complaints
Drainage Complaints
  • make a “reasonable effort” to resolve conflict
  • informal complaint
  • formal complaint with $
  • notice of filing
  • investigation (topographic surveys, hydrology study, final report)
drainage complaints cont d
Drainage complaints (cont’d)
  • formal hearing (if requested)
  • final decision
  • ruling passed and compliance is mandatory