Project Organization

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# Project Organization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

CEN 4021 Class 13 – 02/23. Project Organization. Review Class 12 More on Effort Estimation Overview of Organization Software Development Structures. General Estimation Model. How do spmrs determine the effort of a s/w project?

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CEN 4021 Class 13 – 02/23

### Project Organization

Review Class 12

More on Effort Estimation

Overview of Organization

Software Development Structures

General Estimation Model
• How do spmrs determine the effort of a s/w project?
• Historically, spmrs have based many of their estimates on some form of “consulting the expert”. What does this mean?

Software effort estimation model:A set of information and relationships organized for the purpose of estimating the effort needed to complete a s/w project. The information and the values assigned to the information may vary from project to project.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

General Estimation Model

Software effort estimation model cont: Similarly, the relationships may be organized into a mathematical equation, which may vary from project to project.

Most models use the following general form, or its derivative, to estimate effort:

Effort = (a + [b x (Sizec)]) x PROD(f’s)

where

a, b, c = statistically derived coefficients or best approxs.

Size = estimated size of the project

F’s = factors that influence the project estimates

PROD(f’s) = the product of arithmetically multiplying those factors

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

The COCOMO Effort Estimation Model
• The COnstructive COst Model (COCOMO) is a specific example of the general estimation equation developed by Boehm in the 1980’s.
• COCOMO includes 3 levels of models:
• A macro estimation model
• An intermediate-level model
• A more detailed micro estimation model
• The intermediate model is used in the example in the text.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

The COCOMO Model cont

General process of using the COCOMO is:

• Choose an estimate of what would be considered the “nominal” (typical) development of the project. Nominal project modes are - Organic, Semidetached, and Embedded.
• Choose an estimate of the size of the project.
• Review the factors that influence the project, the cost drivers, and estimate the influence that each factor will on the chosen “nominal” case.
• Determine the effort by inserting the estimated values into the Effort Formula.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

The COCOMO Model cont
• An untrained spmr might not be able to easily choose the correct mode.
• Very few projects have characteristics that fall neatly within any one of the mode categories.
• For each of the three modes, a different formula is used for estimating the Effort:

Organic: Effort (in person-months) = 3.2 x (Size)1.05

Semidetached: Effort (in person-months) = 3.2 x (Size)1.12

Embedded: Effort (in person-months) = 3.2 x (Size)1.20

Size is expressed as LOC.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

The COCOMO Model cont
• Estimating lines of code early in the project may be difficult. Therefore some estimation techniques use function points.
• The new COCOMO II offers the following estimation model:

Effort = 2.45 x (Size)m x PROD(f’s)

Here Size may be either function points or LOC.

PROD(f’s) is a product of several factors that influence the project

m varies in value depending on the project situation

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

The COCOMO Model cont
• Go through handout.
• For class project estimate the effort using “The early design model” for the COCOMO II.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

POMA – Organization
• Seeks to construct a s/w development, support, and service organization based on the project plan.
• Activities include:
• Acquiring various skilled individuals needed for the project.
• Defining a process and a set of methodologies for the s/w project.
• Obtaining the tools to support the process and methodologies.
• Creating a set of well-defined metrics to track and gauge the project.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Organization cont

Issues of major concern:

• Personnel are properly equipped to perform their designated task i.e.,
• equipping personnel include obtaining tools and preparing facilities
• educating personnel in using tools, methodology, and metrics
• Allocation of adequate financial funding.
• Team should include financial and personnel management members or have well-defined interfaces with these entities in the organization.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Development Structures

General software development organization. An implementation-independent general organization that includes all the major activities required to develop software artifacts, from inception to release. The specific implementation details such as relationships among activities, expected sourcing of the people, or the deployed organizational structure are added onto the general organization.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Fig. 6.1 General Software Project Organization

Project Management

Database Management

Application Design

Build/Packaging

User Interface Design

Application Management

Tools Support

Requirements Analysis

Applications Testing

Process and Measurement

System Design

Systems Testing

Publication and Information

Design

Publication and Information

Development

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Development Structures cont

1. Matrix vs. Hierarchical Orientation

• The s/w development structure is flexible based on the size of the project.
• The organization structure may be represented either as a hierarchy or as a matrix.
• Hierarchy org.: all the people associated with a project are grouped into functional departments that report directly within the vertical line of command of the org..
• Matrix org.: people are grouped based on the functions they perform. These people may not report directly within the vertical line of command of the org..

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Development Structures cont

2. Functional Orientation

• The general orgl. structure may be further refined to show a more precise structure.
• It is important that the org. be defined down to a level where each individual can see her/his name.
• Se Figure 6.3 P. 132 that shows the refined s/w org. – Functional orientation.
• Many orgs rely on this type of org. in which activities are dispersed but all the responsibilities are still put into the hand of a small group of people.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Development Structures cont

2. Functional Orientation cont

• Such and org. tends to have more overhead, including several people engaged in activities indirect to the immediate project.
• This org. requires a manager to spend more time conscientiously promoting rapid and effective communications.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Development Structures cont

3. Highly Specialized Organization

• See Figure 6.4 P. 134. Refined s/w project org.: S/w development specialization
• More specialized, that is the groups responsible for only the development of software, but not the information development and publication task.
• Group does not perform any of the requirements gathering and specification activities, nor does it handle any independent testing.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Development Structures cont

3. Highly Specialized Organization cont

• No project service activities, such as those dealing with processes, methodologies, measurements, configuration management, and tools, are the responsibility of this group.
• The s/w development manager for this group still needs to ensure that the interfaces to the other departments within the same organization are well defined and operational.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

The end.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Support Structures
• After the release of the software there is still a need for support form the s/w development company.
• A s/w support and service organization may share many characteristics of the general software project org..
• S/w support and service: Post-software-release activities related to clarifying user questions and fixing s/w problems encountered by users.
• Software support and service has one important component – customer management.

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Support Structures cont
• Spmr must set up an extensive customer interface group, such as call service dept. that handles the following duties:
• Analyze each problem
• Respond to the customer if a possible solution exist
• Generate a problem report when an immediate solution does not exist
• Track problem resolution activities
• Report and deliver solutions to the customer
• Close problems

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23

Software Support Structures cont
• Customer management – The set of activities related to ensuring that the customers’ need are properly served.
• A different set of skills and tools may be needed for a s/w support org. as opposed to the s/w development org..
• See Figure 6.5 P. 135 “Software support organization.”

CEN 4021 Class 13 - 02/23