Developmental psychology
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Developmental psychology. Child development. Developmental psychology. Developmental issues Is it nature or nurture? Or some of each? How much of development is continuous, and how much is in stages? Once a characteristic is formed, is it stable or changeable?

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Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology

Child development


Developmental psychology1
Developmental psychology

  • Developmental issues

    • Is it nature or nurture? Or some of each?

    • How much of development is continuous, and how much is in stages?

    • Once a characteristic is formed, is it stable or changeable?

    • Conclusion: Development is a life-long process.


Child development
Child development

  • Conception and prenatal development

  • Testing the abilities of infants

    • Reflexes and Apgar scores

    • Behavioral: Gaze, suck, turn head

    • Learning and information processing: Odor, sound, taste

  • Neural development: The role of experience


Cognitive development
Cognitive development

  • What is cognition?

  • The importance of contingent responses from the environment

    • Watson & Ramey (1972): Mobile control and learned helplessness

  • Piaget’s notion of schemas

  • Processes of cognitive development:

    • Assimilation

    • Accommodation



Sensorimotor stage birth to age two
Sensorimotor stage, birth to age two

  • Cognition develops as sensing and acting

  • Object permanence is minimal prior to age 6 months, but:

  • Itunfolds gradually thereafter

  • Habituation learning is seen as early as 7 hours

  • One-month-old babies develop visual schemas for the pacifier they had only felt.

  • Physical impossibilities cause infants to gaze longer (Bailargeon, 1992)

  • Five-month-old babies are sometimes surprised by changes in number


Transition
Transition:

  • Deferred imitation

  • Beginning symbol use:

    • Signifiers

    • Language or signs


Operations
Operations

  • Preoperational stage

    • Ready use of symbols

    • Age two to seven

    • Egocentrism and conservation

  • Concrete operational stage, age 7 to 11

  • Formal operational stage, after age 12


Social development
Social development

  • Stranger anxiety

  • Attachment: Body contact and the secure base (Harlow)

  • Critical periods and imprinting (Lorenz)

  • Study effects of deprivation, daycare, and divorce

    • Key factors: Interaction (responsive parenting) and conflict


Parenting styles
Parenting styles

  • Authoritarian parents: Obedient, unhappy, distrustful children

  • Authoritative parents: Highest self-esteem and social competence

  • Permissive parents: Least self-reliant and curious

  • Rejecting-neglecting parents: Troubled kids

  • Critical thinking: Correlational research


Adolescence and adulthood
Adolescence and adulthood

  • Moral development

    Kohlberg’s research

    Carol Gilligan’s critique

    Women’s ways of knowing

  • Psychosocial development

    Erik Erikson’s model and Shakespeare

  • Intellectual development in adulthood

  • Methods of developmental research



Water level task piaget inhelder
Water Level Task (Piaget & Inhelder)

  • Performance improves until, at age 9, it is consistently accurate.

  • However, students in college and graduate school may have difficulty.

  • 50% of men do well, but only 25% of women.

  • Field independent people do better.

  • Mental rotation and error amount correlate