what is to be done with coal power n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
What is To Be Done with Coal Power? PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
What is To Be Done with Coal Power?

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 15

What is To Be Done with Coal Power? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Download Presentation
What is To Be Done with Coal Power?
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. What is To Be Done with Coal Power? Robert H. Williams Head, Carbon Capture Group Carbon Mitigation Initiative (10-year BP/Ford-supported PEI Project) Senior Research Scientist Princeton Environmental Institute Princeton University Invited Testimony at the NJ Clean Air Council Public Hearing on Electricity Generation Alternatives for New Jersey’s Future NJ Department of Environmental Protection Trenton, NJ 1 April 2009

  2. Meeting GHG mitigation goals being discussed in Administration/Congress will require one or more of the following courses of action for existing coal power plants: • CO2 capture and storage (CCS) via: • Retrofitting existing plants with “CO2 scrubbers” • Repowering existing plants…but saving the sites • Retiring the plants long before industry would like to do so

  3. Main Near-Term CCS Options for Existing Coal Power Plants (e.g., Hudson) • Retrofitting with amine scrubbers (costly, huge energy penalty, high GHG emissions price needed to make the technology cost-effective ) • Repowering options (replacing equipment but saving the site): • IGCC-CCS: least costly stand-alone power option…but still costly • Coproduction of liquid fuels/electricity with CCS • Low CO2 capture cost for synfuels (mostly for CO2 drying, compression) • Higher energy efficiencies/lower capital costs than for separate production units • Attractive economics for power generation at high oil prices • Extremely low pollutant emissions (SOX, NOX, ROX, Hg) at plant and from ultimate burning of synfuels • Coprocessing coal/biomass to make liquid fuels/electricity with CCS  biomass status transformed from “C-neutral” to “C-negative”

  4. The Green Coal Path to Near-Zero Emissions New Supercritical Plants and CCS Demonstration Essential Advanced Supercritical Combustion Plants Demonstrating Carbon Capture / Storage (CCS) Commercial CTG/CTL with CCS Source: presentation by Frederick D. Palmer (Senior VP - Government Relations, Peabody Energy) at World CTL 2009 (Washington, DC, 26 March 2009) Commercial IGCC with CCS Retrofitting PC Plants with CCS 2007 2010 2020 2030 Coal industry leaders recognize that CCS via CTL/CTG is commercially ready!!

  5. Early CCS Project Already Underway in New Jersey • High electricity prices, stringent environmental regulations, and favorable offshore prospects for CO2 storage make NJ attractive for early CCS projects based on superclean energy via gasification • “PURGeN” project proposed by SCS Energy to Planning Board of City of Linden on 24 March 2009 for 98 acre site (long idle DuPont property): • Would gasify Pennsylvania coal to generate ~ 500 MWe (net) and produce as coproducts H2, NH3, and urea • Would use dry cooling system for the combined cycle power system, as at the Astoria Energy Plant (a natural gas combined cycle) previously built by SCS • Would capture 90% of the carbon in the coal as CO2 and store it in a sandstone formation 1700 m under the seafloor at a distance 100 miles from shore where the water is 800 m deep • Targeted date for plant start-up is 2014

  6. LIQUID FUELS/ELECTRICITY COPRODUCTION FROM COAL + BIOMASS F-T FUELS Water Gas Shift Pressurized Gasification Gas cooling & cleaning H2S, CO2 removal F-T Synthesis Upgrading, Refining Coal oxygen unconverted + recovered gas CO2 air Air separation unit GTCC Power Island EXPORT ELECTRICITY Underground Storage oxygen process electricity air Pressurized Gasification Gas cooling & cleaning Biomass • Syngas streams from coal & biomass gasifiers are combined to make • synthetic diesel & gasoline (Fischer-Tropsch liquids or FTL) • Syngas unconverted in single pass through synthesis reactor burned • to make electricity in GT/ST combined cycle plant • Coproduction  huge energy efficiency/capital cost advantages • compared to production of liquid fuels & electricity in separate units • Biomass/coal coprocessing  exploit simultaneously: • Negative GHG emissions benefit of photosynthetic CO2 storage • Coal conversion scale economies (& sometimes lower coal prices)

  7. Retrofit & Repowering Options for CCS at Hudson a Capacity factors: 73% (Hudson As Is), 85% (other power only); 90% (coproduction) b Plausible bio supply: urban wood wastes in Bergen, Essex, Hudson, & Union Counties

  8. Potential Urban Wood Waste Supply for Repowering Hudson Coal Power Plant with Coal/Biomass Co-Production Facility with CCS Source: Private communication from Dr. Marie Walsh (Adjunct Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics, U. of Tennessee, and energy consultant, M&E Biomass). See also Marie Walsh, Estimated US Urban Wood Waste Supply and Distribution—Documentation of Methodology and Data Sources, M&E Biomass (M.E.Biomass@comcast.net, 24 June 2008)

  9. GHG Emission Rates: Hudson As Is & for Retrofit/Repowering Options • For liquids/electricity options, synthetic fuel coproducts are assigned fuel-cycle-wide GHG emission rates = rates for crude oil-derived products displaced • For Hudson CCS retrofit and IGCC with CCS, CO2 is captured at a rate equivalent to 90% of the carbon in the coal • For coal and coal/biomass to liquids/electricity with CCS, CO2 is captured at a rate equivalent to 68% of the carbon in the feedstock that is not contained in the liquid fuel products

  10. Cost Analysis of Co-Production Systems as Electricity Generators • Value of FTL = economic worth based on refinery-gate prices of crude oil-derived products displaced • Levelized electricity generation cost (LEGC) = [(Levelized energy system cost, $/year) – (Levelized economic worth of FTL, $/year)] /(Levelized electricity generation rate, MWh/year) • For co-production systems the LEGC is a function of the crude oil price. • Assumed feedstock costs: $4.0 per million BTU for both coal and urban wood waste

  11. Hudson: Retrofit & Repowering Options for a 20-Year Levelized Crude Oil Price of $75 a Barrel #1: Hudson CCS Retrofit #2: Coal IGCC with CCS #3: Coal/Biomass to Liquids/Electricity with CCS

  12. Hudson: Retrofit & Repowering Options for a 20-Year Levelized Crude Oil Price of $100 a Barrel #1: Hudson CCS Retrofit #2: Coal IGCC with CCS #3: Coal to Liquids/Electricity with CCS #4: Coal/Biomass to Liquids/Electricity with CCS

  13. Proposed DoD/DoE CCS Early Action Initiative (CEAI) • Urgency to carry out “megascale” integrated CCS projects • G8 Summit (Japan 2008) • G8 agreement to sponsor 20 projects globally (up & running ~ 2016) • US commitment to sponsor 10 • Do economic crisis/budget deficit concerns jeopardize G8 goal? • CEAI (enabling goal realization at low cost to government) would: • Allow co-production systems to compete with power only systems for subsidies • Require that synfuels be in compliance with Section 526 of Energy Indepen-dence and Security Act of 2007: fuel-cycle-wide GHG emission rate for synfuels procured by government < that for crude oil-derived products displaced • Specify that winning projects are those with least costs of GHG emissions avoided (e.g., as determined in reverse auctions) • For winning projects: • Government would pay incremental cost for CCS for 5 years • Air Force would offer 20-year procurement contracts for synthetic jet fuel

  14. Requests: • That the NJ Clean Air Council insert into the record of this hearing along with my testimony the following: • R.H. Williams, “Toward Decarbonization of Power as Well as Fuels via Co-Production with CCS & Coal/Biomass Coprocessing,” presentation at World CTL 2009, Washington, DC, 25-27 March 2009 • R.H. Williams, “Proposed CCS Early Action Initiative for the United States,” v. 10, 18 March 2009 • That the NJ Clean Air Council alert interested parties that technical details related to findings presented at this hearing can be found in: Kreutz, Thomas G., Eric D. Larson, Guangjian Liu, and Robert H. Williams, “Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal and Biomass,” Princeton Environmental Institute, August 21, 2008 (revised October 7, 2008). Published in Proc. 25th Annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference, 2008, and available at: http://www.princeton.edu/pei/energy/publications/texts/Kreutz-et-al-PCC-2008-10-7-08.pdf

  15. Acknowledgments • For collaboration in the research reported here: • Tom Kreutz (PEI) • Eric Larson (PEI) • Guangjian Liu (PEI and Asst. Professor, Dept. of Power Engineering, North China Power University, Beijing, China) • For many discussions and helpful comments on this research • Robert Socolow (MAE Professor, PU, and Co-Principal Investigator, CMI) • Fred Dryer (MAE Professor, PU, and Principal Investigator, NetJets Project) • Jim Katzer (NRC, who coordinated the PEI group’s interactions with the Alternative Fuels Panel of NRC’s America’s Energy Future study) • Zheng Li (Thermal Engineering Professor and Head of BP Clean Energy Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China) • Ken Kern, Tom Tarka, Maria Vargas, and John Wimer (NETL) • For research support: • Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative (BP/Ford-supported) • NetJets [a corporate jet services provider (a Warren Buffett-owned company)] • Hewlett Foundation • National Research Council contract