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Manifest Destiny. Chapter 9. People. Junipero Serra Catholic missionary who established missions in the states of California, Texas, and New Mexico His missions helped with the growth of 2 major Californian agricultural centers San Jose Los Angeles Jedediah Smith

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  • Junipero Serra
    • Catholic missionary who established missions in the states of California, Texas, and New Mexico
    • His missions helped with the growth of 2 major Californian agricultural centers
      • San Jose
      • Los Angeles
  • Jedediah Smith
    • Member of the “Mountain Men”
      • Young beaver fur trappers in the Rocky Mountains
    • Helped establish new routes to cross through the Rockies
      • Crossed through the Great Basin and Sierra Nevada Mountains while reaching California
      • “California Trail”
    • Traded with Mexicans
  • Brigham Young
    • Took over for Joseph Smith in the quest for finding a Mormon holy land
      • 30 years as president of Mormon Church
    • 8 years as president of Utah Territory
  • Stephen F. Austin
    • American expiditionist who led settlers east of San Antonio. Founded Austin, Texas
  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
    • Mexican military general who seizes power in Mexico City
    • Centralized power under his authority
    • Leads the Mexican army into Texas , attacking a small garrison at the Alamo
  • Sam Houston
    • Only American to serve as governor of two states, Tennessee and Texas
    • 1st president of Texas
  • James K. Polk
    • US President (Jacksonian Democrat)
    • Expansionist
      • Campaign goals of annexing Texas and Oregon Territory
  • Zachary Taylor
    • American general who leads troops into Texas in Mexican-American War
    • Excellently trained at West Point

Junior officers in Mexican-American War, but their presence will definitely be felt in the Civil War

  • WinsfieldScott
    • General in Mexican-American War
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • William T. Sherman
  • David Wilmot
    • Whig congressmen of Pennsylvania who proposes law, Wilmot Proviso
      • Bans slavery in any new lands won from Mexico
        • Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California
      • Largely disputed, really disliked
timeline of events
Timeline of Events
  • Moving westward…. into Spanish territory
    • New Mexico
      • Territory filled with an abundance of nomadic Native Americans
        • This made settling NM less appealing
        • Colonists depended on Pueblos for protection from other tribes
      • At its height, 9,600 Hispanics and 14,000 Pueblos living before and among American colonists
        • Disease reduces the Pueblo population to 10,000 in just 65 years
      • As we get into the 1800s, Apaches flee from other tribes into NM for safety, raiding Pueblo and Mexican settlements
        • Spanish government protected Spanish settlements through stronger defenses and bribing
    • Texas
      • Established as a buffer zone between Mexican land south of the Rio Grande River
    • California
      • Created as buffer to protect the region from Russian traders traveling south from Alaska
      • Lacking colonists, the Spanish choose to instead convert natives to Christianity to settle and develop the land for them
as we move westward
As we move westward
  • We defend our actions using the term MANIFEST DESTINY
    • It is and always will be our God given, natural, clear right to expand as far as we humanly possibly can within North America
  • We open up trade with both natives and Spanish
    • Despite Mexican apprehension, northern Mexican settlements encouraged it
      • Promoted economic growth for everyone involved
        • Spanish gained manufactured goods
        • Americans gained horses, mules, furs, silver
      • Known as Santa Fe Trail
  • We start expanding into the mountains
    • Mountain Men create trade with their crazy obsession of beaver
      • The environment of the mountains made beaver pelts the warmest thing you could find yourself in
timeline of events1
Timeline of events
  • Oregon and all the wagons that went there
    • Oregon Trail
      • Mostly farmers who took this turn, north at the South Pass (Rocky Mtns)
      • Journey was always a gamble. Get stuck somewhere in the mountains during the winter and end up having to stay there until Spring
      • ~ 260,000 eventually made this journey
timeline of events2
Timeline of Events
  • Texas
    • To develop and defend the province Mexico encourages Americans to come settle the land
      • You did have to agree to be Mexican citizen, Roman Catholic, accept Mexican constitution, banned slavery
      • So, Stephen F. Austin brings thousands of American settlers to the state
        • By 1835, 30,000 Americans in Texas
          • Outnumbered natives (tejanos) 6:1
    • Texas Revolt
      • New inhabitants decide to declare independence and create new republic, Lone Star Republic
        • Santa Anna brings in Mexican military and crushes new republic, slaughtering many of the resisting inhabitants
        • Totally backfires on Santa Anna
          • The mass killings of Texans brings waves of people to Texas to “Remember the Alamo”
          • Sam Houston in Battle of San Jacinto kills 630, captures 730 (only lost 32)
    • James K. Polk makes annexing Texas and Oregon his priority
timeline of events3
Timeline of events
  • It looks really good for us
    • Mexico is backwards 3rd world nation, we are industrialized
      • Better, larger navy, more awesome artillery (things that go boom)
    • Superior military officers (they all end up being Boss’ in the Civil War)
    • US wins every single major battle
      • Army secures New Mexico while Navy gains control of California
    • Within half a year, we secure all of Polk’s goals
      • He wants more!!
      • Sends military into Mexico. It ends with American capture of Mexico City
  • Mexican American War
    • Congress decides to annex Texas
      • Used boundaries that tripled the size of traditional Texas
      • Obviously, Mexico not thrilled
    • Congress declares war, Polk sends troops
      • Zack Taylor goes down to Texas, waits for violence
      • Mexico kills 11 Americans, declaration of war from Congress signed, sealed, delivered
      • South is thrilled with war, North thinks we started this mess
timeline of events4
Timeline of events
  • Territorial Expansion
    • Gadsden Purchase
      • President Pierce authorized James Gadsden’s ambitions to expand the territory of the American South West through purchase
        • Gadsden wants this land because he his highly invested (and the president of) in the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company
        • This purchase would allow him transport ($$$) into new lands
      • Purchase of land that becomes New Mexico and Arizona for the purpose of a continental railroad
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
      • Forced Mexico to give up northern 1/3rd of country
      • Added 1.2 million square miles
    • Wilmot Proviso (go back to David Wilmot)
timeline of events5
Timeline of Events
  • California Gold Rush
    • 80,000 fortune seekers (49ers) head to California with the hopes of finding gold and striking it rich
      • Half by land, half by sea
    • News of gold brought immigrants from the Pacific Rim, South America
    • It was a hard days night
      • Used cheap metal pans, pick axes, shovels at first, swishing water around the pans once harvested, hoping to clean off the gold so that the sun would make it sparkle
        • Placer mining
      • Massive price hikes on everything from clothes to food
      • Mines acted as police as well as judge, jury, and executioner
    • New methods improve results
      • Hydraulic mining allows for hills to be cleared quicker
    • Effects of it all
      • Mexican discrimination
      • California statehood
other vocab
Other Vocab
  • Expansionists
    • People who favored territorial expansion
  • Treaty of Fort Laramie
    • Moved Indians to territories away from primary trails that Americans were using to move west