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Manifest Destiny. Americans Head West. In 1800, > 400,000 settlers lived west of Appalachian Mountains. By 1860, more Americans lived west of the Appalachians than lived along the Atlantic coast. People moved west for religious reasons & to own their own farms. Manifest Destiny. 1845

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Manifest Destiny


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Manifest Destiny

    2. Americans Head West • In 1800, > 400,000 settlers lived west of Appalachian Mountains. • By 1860, more Americans lived west of the Appalachians than lived along the Atlantic coast. • People moved west for religious reasons & to own their own farms.

    3. Manifest Destiny • 1845 • John Louis O’Sullivan • declared that America was “to overspread the continent allotted by Providence” • Idea appealed to most Americans

    4. Manifest Destiny, 2 • The question is, was it… • A moral justification for American expansion (prescription for what an enlarged US could and should be) or • A weak rationale for greed and imperial ambition?

    5. Why Go West? • Land for farming/speculation • New markets for manufactured goods • Immigrants--more living space • Facilitate trade with China • Escape “Panic of 1837” • Promote democracy

    6. Squatters • Early settlers claimed land to farm • didn’t own the land • wanted to buy from the govt • Preemption Act of 1830 • Guaranteed could buy land • up to 160 acres • $1.25 per acre

    7. What’s the Great American Desert? • Why, the Great Plains, of course! • Land was so hard and dry, could not be easily farmed. • People just “passed through” on their way to greener pastures further west. • What changed? • You figure out the answer to this one!

    8. Technology • Jethro Wood: patented iron-bladed plow • John Deere: 1837 steel-bladed plow • reduced labor by 1/2 • Cyrus McCormick: 1834 mechanical reaper • factory in Chicago

    9. The Black Hawk War • Early 1830s--pressures on Native Americans to move west of Mississippi • Prophecy of Black Hawk leading rebellion • 4-month rebellion in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory

    10. The Black Hawk War2 • Ended June 1832 • Illinois militia slaughtered 200 Sauk and Fox people • Both tribes forcibly removed to areas west of the Mississippi

    11. Mountain Men • Small number of “trailblazers” • Trapped beaver and sold furs to traders • Gained knowledge of western territories • Established several trails west • Kit Carson and Jim Bridger

    12. California • Mexico controlled California • Distance from Mexico City made it difficult to govern • 1839: Governor gave 50,000 acres to John Sutter • German immigrant • built a trading post and cattle ranch on his land

    13. Overlanders • Traveled west • usually started in Missouri • Trails • Oregon • California • Santa Fe • Mormon

    14. Trails to the West, 1840

    15. Middle Ground • Land not dominated by either Native Americans or settlers • Relations depended on whether settlers need the Native Americans as trading partners and guides • Moved west as settlers moved

    16. Fort Laramie Treaty • 1851 Conference near Cheyenne, Wyoming • Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux, and Crow • Native Americans control of central plains east of Rockies • Frequently disregarded by settlers and US government

    17. Oregon • 1818: Great Britain & US agreed to jointly occupy • Late 1830s: American missionaries came to convert the Native Americans • Encouraged others to come to the Willamette Valley

    18. The Oregon Trail • 1836: led by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman • Methodist missionaries • schools for Native Americans • Independence, MO to Portland, OR • 1844: ~5,000 settlers were farming in Willamette Valley

    19. Wagon Train Life • Typical trip took 5-6 months • Traveled 15 miles per day • More walking than riding • Hunted along way for meat • Donner Party • Snows in Sierra Nevada • 41 died, survivors=cannibals

    20. The Santa Fe Trail • Busiest and most famous • 780 miles: Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM • Teams of up to 100 wagons • Traders got gold, silver, furs • Restocked and headed back to Missouri

    21. The Mormon Trail • Mormons migrated west to escape religious persecution and convert Native Americans • 1827-Joseph Smith receives Book of Mormon from God • 1830-Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints founded

    22. The Mormon Trail2 • 1839 Joseph Smith murdered by an anti-Mormon mob • Brigham Young then led Mormons to Utah (then part of Mexico) • common ownership of water and timberland • irrigated fields for farming

    23. Mormon Migration • Sought religious freedom • Led by Brigham Young along the Mormon Trail • 1847, Mormons stopped at the Great Salt Lake • Called it Deseret (term in Book of Mormon for honey bee.)

    24. Settlement Patterns • Only a few thousand Mexican settlers in “Texas” • Conflict -- Native Americans • Mission System • Spanish soldiers at presidios (forts) • Protect Catholic mission lands

    25. Forced Labor • Many Native Americans fled • Some forced into unpaid labor • Groups of Comanche & Apache retaliated by terrorizing Mexican settlements • Tejanos: Mexican settlers

    26. Mexican Independence • 1821 - Independence/Spain • Northern regions: Trade with US increased • Mexico wanted to improve economy • eased trade restrictions /US • trade more attractive with US than southern Mexico

    27. Possession... • …not same as control! • Mexico City not helping northern areas (Texas) with Indian Affairs • Mexican government encouraged American farmers to settle in Texas • increase US goods to Mexico

    28. Empresarios • Mexican land grants to agents called Empresarios • Empresarios sold land to American settlers • 12.5 cents/acre • obey Mexican laws • observe official Catholic religion

    29. Population Shifts • Soon more Anglo (English-speaking) settlers than Tejanos in Texas • Until 1830s, transplanted Americans appeared content to be naturalized Mexican citizens

    30. Stephen Austin

    31. Stephen F. Austin • Most successful empresario • Colony in Texas between Brazos and Colorado rivers • Texas’ Old Three Hundred • Capital in San Felipe • Andrew Jackson offers $5 million to buy Texas

    32. Anglo Conflicts • Overwhelmingly Protestant • Brought slaves • 1830 border sealed to further immigration • Heavy tax - imported goods • Troops tried to enforce • Anglos double by 1834

    33. Gone to Texas • 1835 - over 1,000 Americans went to Texas each month • “G.T.T.” on their doors • 1835 • 4,000 Tejanos • 30,000 Anglos • 5,000 Black slaves

    34. Political Instability • 1833 - Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna suspends constitution • Stephen Austin arrested for inciting revolution • Suspended local powers in Texas

    35. Texas Revolution • 1835 • Texas declared independent nation and formed army • March 1836: The Alamo • all 187 Texans killed • Davy Crockett • Jim Bowie

    36. Battle of the Alamo

    37. Davy Crockett on Texas • I must say as to what I have seen of Texas, it is the garden spot of the world. The best land and the best prospects for health I ever saw, and I do believe it is a fortune to any man to come here. There is a world of country here to settle. • 1836

    38. Texas Revolution2 • Battle of San Jacinto • “Remember the Alamo” • April 21 • Sam Houston captured Santa Anna • Treaty of Velasco • Mexico refuses to accept treaty

    39. Major Battles in the Texas Revolution, 1835–1836

    40. Sam Houston

    41. Texas Statehood • 1838 • asked US to annex Texas • 1844 Presidential Campaign • James Polk, a slave owner, favored annexation ASAP • 12-29-1845: Lone Star Republic becomes 28th state

    42. John Tyler • “His Accidency” • As a lame-duck, uses Polk’s election as president to push annexation of Texas • Worried about growing British influence in Texas • Senate rejected his treaty of annexation in 1844

    43. The Election of 1844

    44. War with Mexico • US • European settlers felt morally and religiously superior • Manifest Destiny • Economy growing quickly • transportation • industry

    45. Pres. James Polk

    46. James K. Polk • Wants it all, not just Texas • New Mexico • California • Border disagreement • US: at the Rio Grande • Mexico: at the Nueces River • 100 miles further northeast

    47. Polk the Purposeful • Jose Herrera ousts Santa Anna • Polk sends John Slidell • purchase California & NM • Rio Grande border • Herrera will not receive Slidell • Polk orders Zachary Taylor to blockade Rio Grande River

    48. Polk the Purposeful2 • Mexicans see as violation of territorial rights • Mixed reception by Americans • Agree with expansion • Divided over military action • Slavery becomes key issue