Manifest Destiny Chapter 9 Section 2
The Frontier Draws Settlers • American Mission: “Empire for Liberty” • Manifest Destiny • 1840’s expansion fever gripped the country • Americans believed that expansion westward and southward was destined and ordained by God • US was destined to spread from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean and that it was “manifest” or obvious
The Frontier Draws Settlers • Attitudes Toward the Frontier: • Panic of 1837 forced many to leave their lives to try and start new in the west • Land was plentiful and hopes of a fresh started lured thousands of Americans to move west • Transportation Revolution expanded trade with China and Japan • Several ports opened up in the Oregon Territory
Settlers and Native Americans • The Black Hawk War: • Early 1830s settlers in western Illinois and eastern Iowa urged Native American people living there to relocated west of the Mississippi River. • Chief Black Hawk of the Sauk tribe after being told of a vision of him leading the Native American people to regaining their rightful lands he lead a rebellion against the US • The Black Hawk war spread into the Wisconsin Territory • Ended in 1832 when Illinois militia slaughtered 200 Sauk and Fox people. • Result the Sauk and Fox tribes were forcibly moved west of the Mississippi River
Settlers and Native Americans • Middle Ground: • Neither settlers or Native Americans dominated • Settlers needed Natives to trade with and use as guides heading west • Mutually beneficial relationship between the Native Americans and settlers
Trails West • The Santa Fe Trail • One of the busiest and most well-known route • 780 miles from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, NM • Traders would load up wagons with cloth, knives, and guns to head to Santa Fe • Wagons would travel in packs of up to 100 to provide protection from Native American attacks • When close to Santa Fe wagons go separate ways to load up with silver, gold, and furs to bring back to the US
Trails West • Oregon Trail • Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon • Fertile soil and abundant rain fall attracted settlers by the hundreds to the Oregon Trail • Trip took months to complete • Wagons traveled in groups for protection and companionship
POP QUIZ • Who was the chief of the Sauk Tribe? • Where did the Santa Fe Trail begin? • What is another word for “manifest”? • Name one reason wagons on the Oregon Trail traveled in groups. • The transportation Revolution opened up trade with what other countries?