I. African American History 1865-1945 A. Black Codes-Passed in the South following the Reconstruction period. Designed to limit African American rights.
B. Literacy Tests-Required voters to read and understand the state Constitution. States deliberately picked areas of the Constitution that were difficult to understand.
C. Poll Tax-Southern states adopted a monetary sum to vote that was beyond the means of most African Americans.
D. Grandfather Clauses-Anyone that had an ancestor who could vote in 1867, allowed whites to bypass literacy tests. 15th amendment wasn’t ratified until 1870
E. Following military reconstruction in the South, southern states began passing Jim Crow laws. 1. Jim Crow-Legalized segregation in the South.
Plessyv. Ferguson (1896) a) Background-30 year old Homer Plessywas jailed for sitting in the “White” car of the East Louisiana Railroad.
b) Ruling: Supreme Court upheld the segregation and declared facilities must be “separate but equal.” In other words, segregation was legalized.
F. Booker T. Washington-Urged African Americans to postpone the fight for civil rights and instead concentrate on preparing themselves educationally and vocationally for full equality.
G. W.E.B Du Bois-Accused Booker T. Washington of being too conservative on civil rights. He insisted upon equal treatment and voting rights. He would publish The Crisis, the official magazine of the NAACP.
H. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)-Fought against discrimination of African Americans. “The Niagara Movement”
I. Great Migration-Period following WWI where African Americans moved to the North for economic opportunities.
J. Harlem Renaissance-Arts awakening for African Americans. 1. Langston Hughes 2. ZoraNeale Hurston
K. Jazz Age-Many African Americans participated in the Jazz Age (i.e., Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington)
II. African American History Post 1945 A. In 1948, Harry S. Truman issued an executive order that ended the segregation of the military.
B. Montgomery Bus Boycott-On December 5, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of the bus. This led to a boycott of the bus system in Montgomery.
Martin Luther King Jr. was elected to run the Montgomery Bus Boycott and urged his supporters to use non-violence to get rid of segregation.
Assessment-5/6/13 • What was the significance of Plessy v. Ferguson? • What was the Great Migration? • What were the methods of MLK Jr? • What was the purpose of grandfather clauses, literacy tests, and poll taxes?
2. After the boycott, King established the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957 to eliminate segregation.
C. Brown vs. the Board of Education (1954) 1. Linda Brown was denied access to an all white school in Topeka, Kansas.
a) With the help of the NAACP and their brilliant lawyer, Thurgood Marshall, Linda Brown sued the Topeka School Board.
1) The school board ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional due to the equal protection clause in the 14th amendment.
D. Little Rock School Crisis-In September 1957, nine African Americans were set to enroll at Central High with 9,000 white students. The governor (OrvalFaubus) refused to allow the students into the school and sent the Arkansas National Guard.
1. Eisenhower Reacts-Eisenhower sent in the Army and federalized the Arkansas National Guard. Federal troops ensured that the “Little Rock Nine” enrolled in school.
E. Greensboro Sit-Ins-African American students sat at the lunch counter and were refused service. This inspired African Americans across the South to conduct similar sit-ins.
F. Freedom Riders-Teams of African Americans and white volunteers rode buses south to expose the lack of integration in bus terminals. 1. In Birmingham one bus was met by members of the KKK armed with baseball bats, chains, and lead pipes.
G. Peaceful protests led by King in Birmingham, Alabama would lead to more violence. Kennedy was now convinced he would introduce a civil rights bill, but needed the right time.
H. After the murder of civil rights activist Medgar Evers, Kennedy introduced a civil rights bill.
1. In order to gain support for the bill, Martin Luther King Jr. organized a march on Washington. On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 protestors listened to speeches that included, “I have a dream” speech.
2. After the civil rights bill was introduced, the Senate filibustered the bill. a) Filibuster-When a minority of senators refuse to stop talking to prevent a bill from coming to a vote.
3. On November 22, 1963, JFK was assassinated and Lyndon Johnson, a Texan, became president. a) Johnson put his entire support behind the bill and helped bring an end to the filibuster. The Civil Rights Act would pass in 1964. LBJ “politicking” Senator Russell, a segregationist
b) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 1) Law made segregation illegal in most public places 2) Gave the government power to force school desegregation 3) Gave the federal government power to prevent racial discrimination and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
I. Voting Rights- 1. 24th amendment-Ended poll taxes in federal elections. 24th amendment-The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
2. The Voting Rights Act of 1965- a) Authorized federal examiners to register qualified voters b) Suspended discriminatory devices, such as literacy tests
J. Black Power Movement-Many African Americans were critical of King’s non-violent protests. 1. Malcolm X-Was a Black Muslim, and a believer that African Americans should separate themselves from whites.
2. Black Panthers-Created in 1966 a) They believed a revolution was necessary to fight whites to grant them equal rights.
K. Affirmative Action-Calls for companies to recruit African Americans with the hope this will lead to improved social and economic status.
Marcus Garvey and the “Back to Africa Movement” Marcus Garvey thought African Americans should move back to Africa where they would enjoy equality. Early 20th century
End of the Civil War-Reconstruction begins Who implemented Reconstruction policy? Who did they send to enforce their policies? 13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment Plessyv. Ferguson What doctrine was established by the Supreme Court in this case? What was the name of the segregation laws in the South? Greensboro Sit-Ins What was the purpose of the Greensboro Sit-Ins? What was one other example of a non-violent protest for civil rights? 1877 1954 1964 1865 1896 1960 Reconstruction Ended: What was the Compromise of 1877? 2) What were grandfather clauses, literacy tests, and poll taxes designed to do in the South? Civil Rights Act of 1964 What were the three parts of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? How did southern congressmen attempt to block this bill? What was LBJ’s influence on the Civil Rights movement? Brown v. the Board of Education What did this Supreme Court case establish? Why was it difficult to enforce?