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Overview: Maternal and Child Health in Underdeveloped Countries or: The World is Not Flat HSERV/GH 544 Winter Term 2011. Objectives of session. Provide an overview of main health problems of women, newborns, and children in underdeveloped countries, including the underlying inequalities
IMR= Infant mortality rate (deaths 0-11 months/1000 live births)
MMR= Maternal mortality ratio (pregnancy-related deaths per 100,000 births)
LTR=Lifetime risk of dying of a pregnancy-related cause (expressed as a ratio of 1:x women of childbearing age)
TFR=Total fertility rate (expected pregnancies per woman CBA)
CPR=Contraceptive prevalence rate (proportion of couples in union using a modern contraceptive method)
ANC=Antenatal care (variously defined)
SBA=Skilled Birth Attendant (doctor, nurse or midwife)
PC/GNI=Per capita gross national product
MMR LTR PC/GNIItaly 3 26,600 32,020
United States 11 4800 44,970
Thailand 44 900 2990Ecuador 210 170 2840
India 450 70 820Mozambique 520 45 290
Timor-Leste 380 35 840
Nepal 830 31 260
Source: State of the World’s Children 2008, UNICEF
*other direct causes include ectopic pregnancy, embolism, anaesthesia-related** indirect causes include: anaemia, malaria, heart disease, HIV/AIDS.
(50% of all deaths in 2008 were in only 6 countries: India, Nigeria,
Pakistan, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Middle East and
Europe/ Baltics/ CIS*
* Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union).
Source: UNICEF End of Decade Databases—Delivery Care and
Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, 2004.
From: A global picture of poor-rich differences in the utilisation of delivery care, Anton Kunst and Tanja Houweling, Health Services Organization and Policy, 17, 2001
Source: WHO (2003)
At least a quarter of children are not routinely immunized
Almost half do not have access to antibiotics to treat pneumonia
Nearly two-thirds do not receive oral rehydration solution to treat diarrhea
90% do not sleep under insecticide-treated nets to prevent malaria
Fall in the standardized death rate per 100,000 population for nine common
infectious diseases in relation to specific medical measures for the United States, 1900-1973
(Source: McKinlay , J. B., & McKinlay, S. M. (1977). The questionable contribution of medical
measures to the decline of mortality in the United States in the twentieth century. Milbank Memorial
Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 55 (3), 405-428.)